资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (7): 1325-1337.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.09

• 海洋资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国深远海养殖潜力的空间分析

侯娟1,2(), 周为峰1(), 王鲁民1, 樊伟1,3, 原作辉2,3   

  1. 1.中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所,上海 200090
    2.上海海洋大学海洋科学学院,上海 201306
    3.中国水产科学研究院渔业资源遥感信息技术重点实验室,上海 200090
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-29 修回日期:2020-03-20 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 周为峰
  • 作者简介:侯娟,女,山西吕梁人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为渔业GIS应用。E-mail: houjj333@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD0901405);国家自然科学基金项目(31602206);上海市自然科学基金项目(16ZR1444700)

Spatial analysis of the potential of deep-sea aquaculture in China

HOU Juan1,2(), ZHOU Weifeng1(), WANG Lumin1, FAN Wei1,3, YUAN Zuohui2,3   

  1. 1. East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090, China
    2. Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Fisheries Resources Remote Sensing and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090, China
  • Received:2019-11-29 Revised:2020-03-20 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25
  • Contact: ZHOU Weifeng

摘要:

海洋养殖在保障国家粮食安全和营养方面具有非常重要的作用。拓展海水养殖新空间对中国近海生态环境的改善、食物安全的保障、海洋资源的有效利用和海洋主权的宣誓有着重要意义。本文以180种海水养殖物种(鱼类120种、双壳类60种)为分析对象,通过各物种生长耐温范围和研究区域海表温度的匹配和比较,计算空间地理格网上多物种生长潜力指数的平均值,分别得到鱼类和双壳类养殖潜力,并基于阈值法对离岸距离和深度等条件进行约束,定量分析中国深远海养殖潜力的空间分布。结果表明:①在满足评估条件的区域内,对于鱼类,渤黄海(BYS)、东海(ECS)和南海(SCS)海区适宜面积分别约为19.98、76.29、81.69万km2;对于双壳类,渤黄海、东海和南海海区适宜面积分别约为3.02、4.17、2.03万km2;②按照海区划分时,可优先考虑东海和南海进行鱼类养殖,而渤黄海鱼类养殖潜力值变化最大,未来鱼类养殖需要更细致地规划选址,以尽可能选择潜力值较大的区域;双壳类养殖可优先选择南海;③按照海域深度划分时,鱼类可优先考虑深度较深的海域进行远海养殖,而双壳类适宜离岸较近、深度较浅的海域。根据潜力评价结果可进行海域空间规划,为管理部门和养殖企业提供参考。

关键词: 深远海养殖, 养殖潜力, 空间分析, 鱼类, 双壳类, 中国

Abstract:

Expanding the new space for marine aquaculture and carrying out deep-sea aquaculture is of great significance for the improvement of China’s offshore ecological environment, the guarantee of food security, the effective use of marine resources, and marine sovereignty. In this study, 180 mariculture species (120 species of fish and 60 species of bivalves) were analyzed. Through the comparison of the temperature tolerance range of each species and the sea surface temperature range of the study area, the species-to-geographical area matching was achieved. Then the average GPI (growth performance index) values of fish and bivalves at various locations in the sea area were obtained. By further restricting on conditions such as offshore distance and depth based on threshold distance, the potential of deep-sea aquaculture in China was quantitative analyzed. The results are that in the areas where the evaluation conditions are met: (1) For fish, the suitable areas for the Bohai and Yellow Sea (BYS), East China Sea (ECS), and South China Sea (SCS) are 19.98, 76.29, and 81.69 104 km2; for bivalves, the suitable areas of the Bohai and Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea are 3.02, 4.17, and 2.03 104 km2 respectively. (2) With regard to different sea areas, fish aquaculture can be given priority in the East China Sea and South China Sea; however, the potential value of fish aquaculture in the Bohai and Yellow Sea is the largest, and fish aquaculture in the later stage needs to be more carefully planned and sited to select areas with large potential values as much as possible; bivalve aquaculture can give priority to the South China Sea. (3) With regard to different depths: fish can be preferentially considered for deeper sea areas; and bivalves are suitable for breeding in offshore areas that are closer to the shore and shallower in depth. According to the evaluation results of breeding potential, sea spatial planning can be carried out to provide some reference for management departments and aquaculture enterprises.

Key words: deep-sea aquaculture, breeding potential, spatial analysis, fish, bivalves, China