资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (7): 1311-1324.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.08

• 专栏:村镇建设与资源环境协调 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄土高原乡村聚落用地时空演变与影响因素

杨凯悦(), 宋永永, 薛东前()   

  1. 陕西师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院,西安 710119
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-09 修回日期:2020-07-06 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 薛东前
  • 作者简介:杨凯悦,女,吉林蛟河人,硕士研究生,主要从事土地经济与管理研究。Email: 3465727716@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD1100101)

Spatiotemporal change of rural settlement land in the Loess Plateau and influencing factors

YANG Kaiyue(), SONG Yongyong, XUE Dongqian()   

  1. School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
  • Received:2020-01-09 Revised:2020-07-06 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25
  • Contact: XUE Dongqian

摘要:

研究黄土高原乡村聚落用地规模演变及其影响因素,对优化乡村聚落空间格局,落实国家乡村振兴战略具有理论和现实意义。本文采用位序-规模法则、核密度分析和地理探测器方法,研究1990—2015年黄土高原乡村聚落用地的空间分布和规模等级特征,揭示乡村聚落用地规模格局形成影响因素与驱动机制。结果表明:①1990年以来,黄土高原乡村聚落斑块数量和用地规模总体呈现增加趋势,其中2000—2005年乡村聚落斑块数量增加最明显,2005—2010年用地规模扩大最显著。②黄土高原乡村聚落用地规模处于非均衡发展阶段,乡村聚落空间分布具有明显的历史继承性,在地理空间上表现为主体延伸和局部填充两种形式。乡村聚落密度在区域上呈现“一极两翼”的空间结构特征,关中平原地区是乡村聚落核心集聚区,银川平原—六盘山区—陇东高原、河套平原—汾河谷地—豫西盆地内乡村聚落集聚与分散趋势并存。③黄土高原乡村聚落用地规模格局的形成受到多重要素的综合作用。地形起伏度、年平均气温和年平均降水量等是主要的自然作用力,人均粮食产量、总人口数和乡村人口比重等是关键人文驱动力。其中,任意两个因子的交互作用对乡村聚落用地规模空间格局的影响均强于单个因子的影响。④各因素之间的交互作用对黄土高原地区乡村聚落用地规模格局的影响差异显著。自然地理因素与社会经济因素的交互作用对黄土高原沟壑区、土石山区和高原风沙区的乡村聚落用地规模格局影响最为广泛,社会经济因素之间的交互作用对黄土丘陵沟壑区和河谷平原区乡村聚落用地规模格局具有明显的协同增强效应,粮食生产与区位条件对灌溉农业区的乡村聚落用地规模格局具有显著的协同增强效应。

关键词: 乡村聚落, 用地规模, 时空演变, 样带分析, 影响因素, 地理探测器, 黄土高原

Abstract:

Examining the change of rural settlement land scale and its influencing factors is of great theoretical and practical significance for optimizing the spatial pattern of rural settlements and implementing the national strategy of rural revitalization. In this study, the spatial distribution and scale of rural settlement land in the Loess Plateau between 1990 and 2015 were examined using the rank-size analysis, kernel density analysis, and geographical detector and the ArcGIS10.2 software. The influencing factors and driving mechanism of rural settlement land scale pattern are revealed. The results show that: (1) Since 1990, the number of rural settlement patches and the scale of land use in the Loess Plateau have shown an overall increasing trend, of which the number of rural settlement patches increased most obviously from 2000 to 2005, and the scale of land use expanded most obviously from 2005 to 2010. (2) The scale of rural settlements in the Loess Plateau is in a stage of unbalanced development, and the spatial distribution of rural settlements shows clear historical inheritance, which is manifested in overall expansion and local filling. (3) The formation of rural settlement land scale pattern in the Loess Plateau is affected by multiple factors. Topographic relief, annual average temperature, and annual average precipitation are the main natural forces, and per capita grain output, total population, and the proportion of rural population are the key human driving forces. The influence of any combination of two factors on the regional difference of rural settlement land scale is stronger than that of a single factor. (4) The interaction of various factors has significant influence on the scale pattern of rural settlement in the Loess Plateau. The interaction of natural geographical factors and socioeconomic factors has the most extensive influence on the scale pattern of rural settlement land in the gully region, the rocky mountain area, and the aeolian sand area of the Loess Plateau. The interaction between socioeconomic factors has obvious synergistic effect on the scale pattern of rural settlement land in the hilly and gully areas of the Loess Plateau and in valley plain areas. Grain production and location have an obvious synergistic effect on the scale pattern of rural settlement land in the irrigation agricultural areas.

Key words: rural settlement, land use scale, spatiotemporal change, transect analysis, influencing factors, geographical detector, Loess Plateau