资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (7): 1275-1284.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.05

• 专栏:村镇建设与资源环境协调 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄土丘陵沟壑区乡村生态产业化机理及其典型模式

张轩畅1,2,3(), 刘彦随1,2,3(), 李裕瑞1,2, 郭远智1,2, 曹智1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-29 修回日期:2020-02-29 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘彦随
  • 作者简介:张轩畅,男,山东莱芜人,博士生,研究方向为乡村地理与土地工程。E-mail: zhangxc.18b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发项目(2017YFC0504701);国家自然科学基金项目(41971220);国家自然科学基金项目(41931293);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23070300)

Mechanism and typical patterns of rural ecological industrialization in the Loess Hilly-Gully region of China

ZHANG Xuanchang1,2,3(), LIU Yansui1,2,3(), LI Yurui1,2, GUO Yuanzhi1,2, CAO Zhi1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-11-29 Revised:2020-02-29 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25
  • Contact: LIU Yansui

摘要:

生态产业化是新时代推进生态建设与产业发展良性循环、促进乡村地域系统可持续发展的重要途径。黄土丘陵沟壑区位于黄河中游地区,作为黄土高原典型地貌单元,其乡村生态环境脆弱、人地矛盾突出,退耕还林(草)工程后生态功能显著改善,但农业基础薄弱、水土约束增强、生产效益偏低等问题依旧突出,亟需推进生态产业化提升乡村生产和生活功能。本文从生态资源价值增殖角度,探讨了黄土丘陵沟壑区乡村生态产业化的内在机理,并结合延安市治沟造地工程后的典型实践,提出了适合该区域发展的产业化模式及其可持续途径。结果表明:①乡村生态产业化应遵循乡村地域系统演化规律、耦合机理以及价值转化原则,依托地理工程技术加快生态资源培育,建立生态产权管理制度实现生态资源资产化,通过资产集中流转、经营主体培育、产业要素融合等推进生态资产资本化,完善生态市场交易机制保障生态产品与服务市场化;②延安市部分乡村依托治沟造地工程实现了生态资源培育,探索了“资源变资产、资产变资本、资本变资金”的路径,已初步形成了高效种养、休闲农业和多元综合等生态产业化模式;③未来应注重地理工程成效管护、健全产权管理制度、发挥能人带动作用、吸纳社会力量参与以及构建动态评价机制,补齐产业化过程中的短板,推进乡村生态、生产、生活的有机融合,实现乡村产业兴旺、生态宜居和生活富裕的振兴目标。

关键词: 生态产业化, 乡村地域系统, 地理工程, 乡村振兴, 黄土丘陵沟壑区, 延安市

Abstract:

Rural ecological industrialization is an important approach to promote the healthy interaction of ecological construction and industrial development, which could advance the sustainable development of regional rural systems in the new era. China’ Loess Hilly-Gully region is a typical geomorphic unit of the Loess Plateau locating in the middle reaches of the Yellow river, regional eco-environment was fragile and conflict of the rural human-land relationship was prominent. The Grain-for-Green Project significantly improved the ecological functions, but rural issues were still prominent, including weak agricultural foundation, the increase of water-soil constrains, and relatively low production efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent to promote ecological industrialization for improving rural production and living functions. From the perspective of ecological resource value proliferation, this study analyzed the mechanism of rural ecological industrialization in the Loess Hilly-Gully region. Meanwhile, the typical patterns and its sustainable approaches were explored according to the existing practices after the Gully Land Consolidation Project in Yan’an City. The results indicate that: (1) Rural ecological industrialization should be based on regional rural system, and follow the law of evolution, the mechanism of system coupling, and the principle of value transformation. The key processes are as follows: cultivation of ecological resources by geographical engineering, asset management of ecological resources by establishing ecological property rights system, capitalization of ecological assets through asset circulation, stakeholder development and industrial integration, and the marketization of ecological products and services through improving the ecological market trading mechanism. (2) Some villages in Yan’an City realized ecological resources cultivation relying on the Gully Land Consolidation Project, explored the path of resources translating to assets, then turning to capitals and finally converting to funds. Three typical patterns of ecological industrialization have gradually formed: efficient planting-breeding, leisure agriculture, and integration of multiple factors. (3) In the future, weaknesses in the industrialization process could be overcome by geographical engineering effect maintenance, property rights system development, rural talents cultivation, social forces participation, and dynamic evaluation mechanism development. The above approaches would effectively advance the organic integration of rural production, living, and ecological functions, and achieve the aims of rural revitalization of thriving businesses, pleasant living environments, and prosperity.

Key words: ecological industrialization, regional rural system, geographical engineering, rural revitalization, the Loess Hilly-Gully region, Yan’an City