资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (7): 1236-1248.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.02

• 专栏:村镇建设与资源环境协调 • 上一篇    下一篇

村镇建设资源环境承载力的理论基础与测算体系

段学军1,2(), 王雅竹1,2,3, 康珈瑜1,2,3, 柏培源1   

  1. 1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008
    2.中国科学院流域地理学重点实验室,南京 210008
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-16 修回日期:2020-05-31 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 作者简介:段学军,男,内蒙古赤峰人,研究员,研究方向为区域开发与可持续发展。E-mail: xjduan@niglas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD1100101)

Theoretical foundations and measurement system of resource and environmental carrying capacity for village and town development

DUAN Xuejun1,2(), WANG Yazhu1,2,3, KANG JiaYu1,2,3, BAI Peiyuan1   

  1. 1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-01-16 Revised:2020-05-31 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25

摘要:

伴随快速工业化和城镇化,中国不少村镇出现“五化”(非农化、老弱化、空废化、污损化、贫困化)现象,成为制约中国建成全面小康社会的障碍。构建村镇建设资源环境承载力的理论与测算方法体系有助于支持村镇因地制宜、充分利用当地水、土等资源优势,振兴乡村经济,改善村居环境,提升居民幸福感。本文梳理了资源环境承载力的研究脉络、应用领域与尺度特征,并以村镇地域系统为对象,从综合性与地域性视角界定了村镇建设资源环境承载力的概念,从承载力与承载体及其相互关系切入,剖析了村镇建设资源环境承载力的内涵和外延。在对村镇建设类型总结的基础上,分析了不同类型村镇建设与资源环境要素的互馈关系,探讨了村镇建设与资源环境承载力的相互作用机理。最后,通过指标体系与系统模型构建,采用“短板原理”,初步构建了村镇建设资源环境承载力测算体系的理论模型。本文主要贡献为完善了资源环境承载力的理论体系以及系统评估方法,同时对于乡村振兴具有一定理论与实践意义。

关键词: 资源环境承载力, 村镇建设类型, 互馈关系, 理论基础, 测算体系

Abstract:

With the rapid industrialization and urbanization, many villages and towns in China have experienced the phenomenon of “five problems” (non-agriculturalization of the economy, population ageing, rural settlement decay, rural environment pollution, and rural poverty), which has become a major constrain to the construction of a well-off society in China. For this reason, it is urgent to establish the theoretical foundations and a measurement system for evaluating resource and environmental carrying capacity of villages and towns. The evaluation will help village and town development to adapt to local conditions, make full use of local water and soil resources and environmental and ecological advantages, revitalize the rural economy, improve the village living environment, and enhance residents’ happiness. This article first reviewed the research context, application domains, and scale characteristics of carrying capacity. Taking the regional system of villages and towns as the research object, the concept of the carrying capacity of resources and environment in villages and towns was defined from a comprehensive and regional perspective. We also analyzed the connotation and extension of the resource and environmental carrying capacity of villages and towns. Based on the summary of different types of village and town development, the mutual feedback relationship between different types of village and town development and resources and environmental factors was analyzed, and the mechanism of influence of village and town resource and environmental carrying capacity was discussed. Finally, through the construction of an index system and a system model, the “shortcoming principle” was used to build the theoretical model of the measurement system for the resource and environmental carrying capacity of villages and towns. This study extends the theoretical system and assessment methods of carrying capacity of resources and the environment at the village and town level, and it also has some theoretical and practical significance for the program of rural revitalization in contemporary China.

Key words: resource and environmental carrying capacity, village and town development types, mutual feedback, theoretical foundations, measurement system