资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (7): 1223-1235.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.07.01

• 专栏:村镇建设与资源环境协调 •    下一篇

村镇建设与资源环境协调的国外经验及其对中国村镇发展的启示

王磊1,2(), 刘圆圆1,3, 任宗悦1,4, 颜蔚1   

  1. 1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008
    2.中国科学院流域地理学重点实验室,南京 210008
    3.太原师范学院山西省城乡统筹协同创新中心,太原 030000
    4.吉林师范大学旅游与地理科学学院,四平 136000
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-08 修回日期:2020-04-21 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-09-25
  • 作者简介:王磊,男,河南信阳人,副研究员,博士,主要研究方向为区域发展与空间管治。E-mail: wanglei@niglas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD1100101);山西省软科学研究计划项目(2019041013-2)

Coordinating village and town construction and corresponding resources and environment development: International experiences and implications for China

WANG Lei1,2(), LIU Yuanyuan1,3, Ren Zongyue1,4, YAN Wei1   

  1. 1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    3. Shanxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Coordinated Urban and Rural Development, Taiyuan Normal University, Taiyuan 030000, China
    4. College of Tourist and Geoscience, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000, China
  • Received:2020-01-08 Revised:2020-04-21 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-09-25

摘要:

村镇区域是国土空间的重要组成部分,村镇建设对破解城乡二元分割,促进城乡融合发展,调节区域人地关系具有重要意义。村镇建设主要涉及居住、产业、基础设施和生态环境等方面的内容,包含村镇生产生活的基础条件,也反映村镇发展水平和居民生活质量。本文首先分析了二战后西欧(德国和英国)与东亚(日本和韩国)主要国家村镇建设的主要类型与村镇功能演变特征,梳理了针对村镇区域居住、产业与生态环境等方面发展的主要政策、规划与法律等,探讨了村镇建设过程中的资源环境响应及其影响政府的村镇发展政策与规划实践。在此基础上,对比分析了中国快速城镇化进程中村镇建设的阶段特征、主要资源环境问题以及规划政策改革。最后,在国际比较视野下总结了中国村镇建设的特殊性,并从村镇地域系统与主导发展类型的视角,提出了改善村镇建设与资源环境协调关系,促进村镇区域可持续发展的相关建议。

关键词: 村镇建设, 资源利用, 环境保护, 发展阶段, 国内外经验, 启示

Abstract:

The regional system of villages and towns is an important part of national territorial development. The construction of villages and towns is of great significance for coordinated urban and rural development and adjusting regional human-land relationship. The construction of villages and towns mainly involves housing, industry, infrastructure, and ecological environment, which not only is the basis of production and livelihoods of rural communities but also reflects the development level of villages and towns and the quality of life of their residents. This article first reviewed the main types of village and town construction in Western Europe (Germany and the United Kingdom) and East Asia (Japan and South Korea) and the functional evolution of villages and towns after World War II. It then summarized the development of government policies, plans, and regulations for rural governance in terms of regional systems, industrial development, and residents’ livelihood to coordinate rural development and local resources and environment. It also explored the interactive effects between resource and environmental conditions and rural development, that is, the impact of rural development on the change of resource and environmental quality, and the feedback of resource and environmental degradation on rural livelihoods and governments’ plans and practices. Based on this literature and policy review, we comparatively analyzed the stages of rural construction, major resource and environmental issues, and corresponding urban and rural development policies in the process of rapid urbanization in China. From the perspective of international comparison, the characteristics of China’s village and town construction were summarized with respect to regional rural systems and the types of rural development. Finally, this article proposed some policy implications on how to improve the coordinated relationship between rural construction and resources and environmental protection and utilization to promote sustainable regional rural development.

Key words: village and town construction, resource utilization, environmental protection, developmental stage, Chinese and international experiences, implication