资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (6): 1148-1161.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.06.12

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际河流流域组织发展历程及对中国的启示

周海炜1,2,4(), 郑力源1,2,4(), 郭利丹1,2,3,4   

  1. 1.河海大学商学院,南京 211100
    2.河海大学国际河流研究中心,南京 211100
    3.河海大学国际河流研究所,南京 211100
    4.江苏省世界水谷与水生态文明协同创新中心,南京 211100
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-20 修回日期:2020-03-04 出版日期:2020-06-25 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 郑力源
  • 作者简介:周海炜,男,江苏无锡人,博士,教授,主要研究方向为企业战略管理相关理论、水战略、跨界河流问题。E-mail: hwzhou@hhu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71974053);中央高校业务经费项目(2019B69414);中央高校业务经费项目(2018B20214);江苏省研究生科研创新计划项目(SJKY19_0407)

Development of international river basin organizations and implication for China

ZHOU Haiwei1,2,4(), ZHENG Liyuan1,2,4(), GUO Lidan1,2,3,4   

  1. 1. School of Business, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
    2. International River Research Center, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
    3. International River Research Institute, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
    4. Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Valley and Water Ecological Civilization, Nanjing 211100, China
  • Received:2019-09-20 Revised:2020-03-04 Online:2020-06-25 Published:2020-08-25
  • Contact: ZHENG Liyuan

摘要:

国际河流的合作治理已经成为中国推进周边外交的重要抓手,诸多学者都强调了中国应重视研究制定与相关国家和地区的水资源协同开发框架,建立健全跨地区水资源合作机制。但是,在如何设计流域组织的问题上中国缺乏相应的成熟经验。因此,中国在不断推进总结本国实践经验的同时,需要了解国际上国际河流流域组织建设的成功经验以及失败教训。基于此,本文以TFDD收录的国际河流流域组织数据库为研究对象,对其发展历史、现状等基本问题进行阐述。结果表明,国际河流流域组织的发展历史根据组织职能转变与治理机制完善两个角度大致可以划分为萌芽、雏形与完善3个阶段;国际河流流域组织在组织职能、组织类别、结构特征、治理机制4个方面呈现差异化的表现。同时,本文对中国国际河流流域组织情况进行了梳理,并参考国际经验,认为中国国际河流流域组织的设计和选择应基于国家战略规划并充分尊重东北、西北和西南片区的地区差异;同时健全中国流域组织日常管理与应急管理能力应从组织结构以及治理机制入手;但是建立健全国际河流流域组织并非一蹴而就,需要与中国国际河流流域合作开发的发展阶段相适应,不仅要学习西方国际河流流域组织建设的先进经验,也要注重吸取众多欠发达国家的失败经验,并探索能促进流域区域经济发展的治理机制。

关键词: 国际河流, 国际河流流域组织(IRBO), TFDD, 跨境水治理, 治理机制

Abstract:

The cooperative governance of international rivers has become an important way to promote China’s neighborhood diplomacy. Many scholars have stressed that China should attach importance to inter-regional water resources cooperation mechanisms. However, China lacks the corresponding experience in designing such international river basin organizations. Therefore, China needs to understand the successful experiences and lessons of failure of international river basin organizations while continuously reviewing its own practical experiences. Based on these requirements, this study took the international river basin organization data collected by the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD) as the research object, and expounded their development history, current situation, and other basic issues. The results show that the history of the international river basin organizations can be divided into three stages. International river basin organizations differ in organizational function, organizational category, structural characteristics, and governance mechanism. This study also reviewed the situation of the international river basin organizations in China and identified three key points with reference to international experiences. The design and selection of international river basin organization in China should fully respect the regional differences of the northeast, the northwest, and the southwest regions. At the same time, it is necessary to improve the daily management and emergency management capabilities of river basin organizations in China from the perspective of organizational structure and governance mechanism. However, the establishment and improvement of international river basin organizations is a long-term endeavor. It needs to adapt to the development stage of China’s cooperative development of international river basins. In particular, it needs to learn from the failure of many developing countries and establish a new type of international river basin organization under the vision of one community.

Key words: international rivers, International River Basin Organization (IRBO), Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), transboundary water governance, governance mechanism