资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (5): 980-990.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.05.15

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于生态足迹理论的中国生态供需平衡时空动态

洪顺发1, 郭青海2(), 李达维3   

  1. 1.中国海洋大学 国际事务与公共管理学院,青岛 266100;
    2.浙江理工大学建筑工程学院,杭州 310018;
    3.中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-23 修回日期:2019-12-23 出版日期:2020-05-25 发布日期:2020-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 郭青海
  • 作者简介:洪顺发,男,福建泉州人,硕士研究生,主要研究城市与区域规划。E-mail: hsfalir@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31872688);央高校基本科研业务费专项(201861049)

Spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological supply and demand based on ecological footprint theory

HONG Shunfa1, GUO Qinghai2(), LI Dawei3   

  1. 1. School of International Affairs and Public Administration, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China;
    2. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China;
    3. School of Geographic Science and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2019-08-23 Revised:2019-12-23 Online:2020-05-25 Published:2020-07-25
  • Contact: Qinghai GUO

摘要:

生态供需平衡是生态文明研究的一个科学问题,也是生态文明建设的实践基础。生态足迹因其所具有的社会-生态属性和宏观可度量性,成为生态供给与生态需求平衡关系研究的一个切入点。本文在生态足迹理论的基础上,构建生态足迹账户,优化生态足迹、生态承载力计算,评价了1995—2015年中国生态供需平衡状况。研究发现:①中国生态足迹2000年以后增长快速,最终形成东部>中部>西部的“阶梯化”的空间格局;生态承载力呈“局部调整,总体稳定”动态特征;②中国生态供需平衡状况于2005年前后发生质的变化,即由生态盈余转入“生态超载”状态。2015年,中国对自然环境的“占用”需要1.39个中国才能满足现有的生态需求;③东部地区生态超载状况远大于其他地区,西部地区生态承载力基础较差,生态足迹的增长引起了西部地区生态超载加速。其中,宁夏、新疆生态超载严重,且生态足迹呈中高速增长,应引起重视;④能源足迹与污染足迹的控制是改善地区生态供需平衡状况的关键内容。研究结果可为中国区域生态文明建设与生态规划提供参考。

关键词: 生态足迹, 生态承载力, 生态供需平衡指数, 时空动态, 生态盈余, 生态赤字

Abstract:

The balance of ecological supply and demand is a scientific question in the field of ecological civilization research, and a practical basis for the construction of ecological civilization. Because of its social-ecological attributes and measurability, ecological footprint has become an entry point in the study of the linkages between ecological supply and ecological demand. Based on the ecological footprint theory, an ecological footprint account was constructed in this study and ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity calculation methods were optimized for the evaluation of ecological supply and demand in China during 1995-2015. The results show that: (1) Ecological footprint had grown rapidly since 2000, and finally formed a stepped pattern of decrease from the eastern to the central and western regions. The ecological carrying capacity was locally adjusted and the pattern was stable. (2) Ecological supply and demand situation had undergone qualitative change around 2005 in China, shifting from ecological surplus to ecological deficit. Up to 2015, the occupation of the natural environment required 1.39 China to meet existing ecological needs. (3) The ecological overload in the eastern region was much larger than in other regions. The ecological carrying capacity of the western region was poor, and the growth of ecological footprint had caused the acceleration of ecological overload in the western region. Among the western provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions), Ningxia and Xinjiang had serious ecological overload, and the ecological footprint was growing at a medium and high speed, which should be paid special attention. (4) The control of energy footprint and pollution footprint is the core to improve the balance of regional ecological supply and demand. The research results can provide some reference for regional ecological civilization construction and ecological planning in China.

Key words: ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity, ECCI, spatiotemporal dynamics, ecological surplus, ecological deficit