资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (5): 870-880.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.05.06

• 资源经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

农户视角下的重要农业文化遗产价值与保护主体

何思源1, 李禾尧1,2, 闵庆文1,2()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-05 修回日期:2019-11-16 出版日期:2020-05-25 发布日期:2020-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 闵庆文
  • 作者简介:何思源,女,山西太原人,助理研究员,博士,研究方向为保护地可持续生计。E-mail:hesy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0506400);农业农村部国际交流与合作项目(全球重要农业文化遗产申报与管理支撑);农业农村部农村社会事业促进司项目(繁荣发展乡村文化)

Value and conservation actors of Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (IAHS) from the perspective of rural households

HE Siyuan1, LI Heyao1,2, MIN Qingwen1,2()   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-12-05 Revised:2019-11-16 Online:2020-05-25 Published:2020-07-25
  • Contact: Qingwen MIN

摘要:

社区视角的价值判断和行为决策逐渐成为遗产保护研究与实践的关注点。农业文化遗产是具有活态性特征的农业生产系统,也是一类特殊的保护地。农民是农业文化遗产的拥有者,对遗产价值的认知直接影响着参与保护的积极性和遗产系统的持续性。同时,农户视角下的农业文化遗产价值判断还是衡量其文化自觉和遗产保护成效的重要指标。本文提出以条件价值评估法(CVM)为手段、通过支付意愿及其影响因素反映农户视角下的遗产价值判断这一思路和方法,研究遗产保护过程中的农民文化自觉与遗产保护成效,并在全球重要农业文化遗产——江苏兴化垛田传统农业系统的核心区域进行可行性验证。案例研究显示,农户家庭保护支付意愿率仅为43.2%,家庭人口经济特征与对遗产的认知对是否有支付意愿及支付数额大小具有显著影响;无支付意愿家庭中61.6%认为遗产保护主体应当是国家和地方政府;农户的遗产认知得分较低,文化自觉性有限,保护成效尚未显著惠民。这些结果表明,遗产地在保护与发展方面取得显著成效的同时,也存在着农户认知度与参与度低的问题;有必要深入思考并科学界定“保护主体”及其保护途径,让农业文化遗产的多元价值更好地为农户所认知,使其真正成为农业文化遗产动态性与活态性保护的重要力量;条件价值评估法(CVM)可以支持社区视角的保护认知和成效研究。此外,考虑到中国许多保护地及国家公园体制试点区多有当地居民长期生活生产的现实,本文的思路与方法对于其他类型保护地和社区共管机制建设也有参考价值。

关键词: 全球重要农业文化遗产, 支付意愿, 价值认知, 保护主体, 社区, 条件价值评估法, 兴化垛田农业系统

Abstract:

In heritage protection research, much attention has been paid to community value perception and decision making. Agricultural heritage systems are living heritages and a special kind of protected area managed and conserved by local farmers as the main actor. Farmers’ cognition of the value of heritage can impact their initiative of conservation and the sustainability of the systems. Their value judgment of the heritage also matters to their cultural self-consciousness and reflects conservation effects. This research proposed a contingent valuation method (CVM) based approach to reflect farmers’ value judgement revealed by rural households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation and its influencing factors. This method was tested with the Globally Important Agricultural System (GIAHS) of Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem. The case study showed that (1) the positive willingness to pay was merely 43.2%, and household economic conditions and the perception of heritages had significant effects on rural households’ positive/negative willingness to pay and the choice of payment, respectively; (2) 61.6% of the non-payment respondents regarded heritage conservation a government responsibility; (3) rural households’ perception of heritages scored low with a limited cultural self-consciousness and lack of benefit from conservation. These results revealed that the farmers’ cognition of the heritage value and participation in conservation were still limited although much had been achieved during the protection and development in the heritage site. Therefore, it is necessary to rethink the role of conservation main actors and the way to conserve, so that rural households can have a better understanding of various values of the GIAHS and actively participate in conserving the dynamic and living heritages. This proposed approach was found feasible in studying community value perception and conservation effect. Considering similar rural development issues in protected areas and national park pilots, this research may provide a useful view and method to study community co-management in protected areas.

Key words: Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), willingness to pay, value perception, main actor of conservation, community, contingent valuation method, Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem