资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (4): 661-671.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.04.06

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

灾后恢复重建规划实施评估研究进展

赵亮1,2, 何凡能1()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-27 修回日期:2019-09-11 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 何凡能
  • 作者简介:赵亮,男,山西祁县人,博士生,研究方向为自然灾害与区域发展。E-mail: zlookbook@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1502903)

Research progress on the evaluation of post-disaster recovery and reconstruction plan implementation

ZHAO Liang1,2, HE Fanneng1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-06-27 Revised:2019-09-11 Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-06-25
  • Contact: HE Fanneng

摘要:

随着全球变化的加剧,自然灾害日益频发,灾后恢复重建得到广泛重视。恢复重建规划作为指导灾后恢复重建的重要公共政策,对其开展实施评估将有利于保障恢复重建的高效实施与灾区可持续发展。本文通过分析当前灾后恢复重建规划实施评估相关进展了解研究现状,为后期构建综合性的评估技术提供基础。结合对国内外恢复重建规划实施评估理论、内容与方法的整理分析,对比归纳各类规划实施评估的经验与不足,结果表明:目前规划实施评估主要以城市规划、土地规划等传统规划为主,由于灾区具有自然灾害频发、社会经济脆弱等特征导致恢复重建规划实施评估面临更多挑战;现有评估多以传统规划评估理论为基础,需要结合可持续发展理论、灾害经济学理论等完善自身理论体系;评估内容较多关注基础设施、生态环境等要素,还需对社会公平、文化保护等予以关注;评估阶段多关注规划实施结果,较少关注规划实施过程与实施影响;评估方法在各个阶段存在差异,定性与定量方法有待综合运用。未来需要通过设计全阶段的评估流程,构建综合性评估体系与开展灾后可持续性评估以提升评估的科学性。

关键词: 自然灾害, 防灾减灾, 恢复重建规划, 评估, 可持续发展

Abstract:

With intensified human activities, natural disasters have become more frequent, and post-disaster recovery and reconstruction have received widespread attention. Recovery and reconstruction planning is an essential public policy to guide post-disaster recovery and reconstruction, and the evaluation of its implementation will help ensure the efficient implementation and the sustainable development of disaster areas. This article reviewed the current status of research by analyzing the progress in the assessment of the implementation of post-disaster recovery and reconstruction planning and provides a basis for the construction of comprehensive assessment techniques. Combined with the analysis of theories, contents, and methods of the implementation evaluation of Chinese and international recovery and reconstruction planning, the authors compared and then summarized the experiences and deficiencies of various types of implementation evaluation. The results show that the current planning and implementation evaluations are mainly based on traditional planning, such as urban planning and land-use planning. Due to the characteristics of frequent natural disasters and social and economic fragility in disaster areas, implementation evaluation faces more challenges. Existing assessment methods mostly use traditional assessment theories and need to be integrated with theories of sustainable development and disaster economics to improve their theoretical systems. The evaluation content focuses more on infrastructure, ecological environment, and other physical aspects, but it needs to pay attention to social equity, cultural protection, and so on. During the evaluation phase, current ways pay more attention to the results rather than the process and impact. Furthermore, there are differences in the evaluation methods at various stages. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative methods need to be comprehensively applied. In the future, we need to design a full-stage evaluation process, build a comprehensive evaluation system, and conduct post-disaster sustainability assessments to improve the scientific nature of assessments. Comprehensively examining the results of the implementation of post-disaster recovery and reconstruction planning will play an essential role in ensuring the recovery and reconstruction of disaster areas.

Key words: natural disaster, disaster prevention and reduction, post-disaster recovery and reconstruction plan, evaluation, sustainable development