资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (3): 517-526.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.03.10

• 专栏:黄河流域高质量发展的资源禀赋与统筹利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河三角洲高效生态经济区生态变化、问题与对策

翟俊1, 金点点1, 陈妍1, 刘鑫2, 杨栩1, 侯鹏1, 徐延达3()   

  1. 1.生态环境部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
    2.生态环境部信息中心,北京 100029
    3.生态环境部,北京 100006
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-06 修回日期:2020-01-08 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 徐延达
  • 作者简介:翟俊,男,山西朔州人,高级工程师,博士,主要从事生态状况评估与环境遥感应用。E-mail: zhaij@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0506506);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0500206)

Ecological changes, problems and countermeasures in the High Efficiency Eco-economic Zone of the Yellow River Delta

ZHAI Jun1, JIN Diandian1, CHEN Yan1, LIU Xin2, YANG Xu1, HOU Peng1, XU Yanda3()   

  1. 1.Ministry of Ecology and Environment Center for Satellite Application on Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100094, China
    2.Information Center of Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100029, China
    3.Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100006, China
  • Received:2019-09-06 Revised:2020-01-08 Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-05-25
  • Contact: XU Yanda

摘要:

对黄河三角洲生态变化的综合监测与评估,是准确认识三角洲区域生态状况,加强生态环境保护与监管的基础。本文基于多源卫星遥感和地面观测数据,监测黄河三角洲高效生态经济区近30年生态空间和植被长势状况变化,识别区域生态状况基本特征,定量分析区域湿地资源、岸线资源和水沙资源的变化情况;进而结合国家和地方采取的一系列生态保护恢复措施,讨论区域的保护成效,辨识黄河三角洲存在的主要生态问题,提出对策建议。结果表明:①1990—2018年间,黄河三角洲高效生态经济区受城镇空间和农业空间挤占,生态空间面积减少量约为1990年生态空间面积的7.6%,并且沿海及城镇聚集区域周边植被长势有所降低。以坑塘为主的人工湿地面积比例增加了18.1%,人工岸线增加了27.1%,自然湿地资源和自然岸线资源丧失明显。其中,2010—2018年间生态空间被挤占速度有所放缓,各类生态保护规划和工程措施积极作用也逐渐显现,人工湿地面积和人工岸线长度的增速均明显减缓,区域生态保护成效逐渐体现出来。②20世纪50年代以来,黄河水沙条件发生剧烈改变,进入黄河三角洲的水沙资源日趋减少,河口三角洲原生湿地生态补水需求,以及新生湿地面临的蚀退威胁仍然比较严峻。因此,加强区域湿地资源保护修复,优化生态保护空间布局,强化生态空间管控,是提高黄河三角洲生物多样性,促进区域高质量发展的必要手段。

关键词: 生态空间, 湿地资源, 岸线资源, 水沙资源, 黄河三角洲, 高效生态经济区

Abstract:

Comprehensive monitoring and assessment of the ecological changes in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) is fundamental of properly understanding ecological conditions of the delta region and strengthening ecology and environment protection and supervision. Based on multi-source satellite remote sensing and ground observation data, this study monitored the changes of ecological space and vegetation growth in the High Efficiency Eco-economic Zone of the Yellow River Delta (HEEZ-YRD) over the past 30 years, identified the basic characteristics of regional ecological status, and quantitatively analyzed changes of regional wetland, coastline, water and sediment resources. Then, combining with a series of ecological protection and restoration measures taken by the state and local governments, this article discussed the regional protection effectiveness, identified the main ecological problems in the YRD, and put forward countermeasures and suggestions. The results show that from 1990 to 2018, occupied by urban and agricultural space, the reduction of ecological spatial area in the past 30 years was about 7.6% of that in 1990, and the growth trend of vegetation around the coastal and urban agglomeration areas decreased in the HEEZ-YRD. Artificial wetland that mainly composed by ponds increased by 18.1%, artificial shoreline increased by 27.1%, and the natural wetland and shoreline resources lost significantly. The speed of ecological space being occupied has slowed between 2010 and 2018, and the positive effects of ecological protection planning and engineering measures have gradually emerged. The growth rate of the artificial wetland area and the artificial shoreline length has slowed significantly, and the regional ecological protection effect has gradually shown. Since the 1950s, water and sediment conditions of the Yellow River have changed dramatically, and the water and sediment resources entering the YRD have gradually reduced. The ecological water replenishment demand of the original wetland and the threat of erosion and regression faced by new wetland are still severe. Therefore, increasing protection and restoration of regional wetland resources, optimizing the spatial distribution planning of ecological protection, and strengthening the control of ecological space are the necessary means to improving the biodiversity of the YRD and promoting the high-quality development for the region.

Key words: ecological space, wetland resources, shoreline resources, water and sediment resources, Yellow River Delta, High Efficiency Eco-economic Zone