资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (3): 508-516.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.03.09

• 专栏:黄河流域高质量发展的资源禀赋与统筹利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河源区生态保护与草牧业发展关键技术及优化模式

徐田伟1,2, 赵新全1,2, 耿远月1,2,3, 王循刚1,2,3, 毛绍娟4, 徐世晓1,2()   

  1. 1.中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,高原生物适应与进化重点实验室,西宁 810008
    2.中国科学院三江源国家公园研究院,西宁 810008
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    4.青海大学生态环境工程学院,西宁 800016
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-21 修回日期:2020-03-15 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 徐世晓
  • 作者简介:徐田伟,男,黑龙江方正人,助理研究员,主要从事生态草牧业关键技术研究。E-mail: xutianwei@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA23060603);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA2005010406);青海三江源生态保护和建设二期工程科研和推广项目(2018-S-2);“西部青年学者”B类人才培养计划(2017年)

Key technologies and optimization model for ecological protection and grass-based livestock husbandry in the source region of the Yellow River

XU Tianwei1,2, ZHAO Xinquan1,2, GENG Yuanyue1,2,3, WANG Xungang1,2,3, MAO Shaojuan4, XU Shixiao1,2()   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS, Xining 810008, China
    2.Institute of Sanjiangyuan National Park, CAS, Xining 810008, China
    3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4.College of Eco-Environmental Engineering, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China
  • Received:2019-12-21 Revised:2020-03-15 Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-05-25
  • Contact: XU Shixiao

摘要:

黄河源区是中国重要的生态屏障区和草牧业生产区,在维护国家生态安全和改善当地民生等方面发挥着重要作用。由于气候变化和人类活动综合影响,20世纪70年代以来黄河源区草地生态系统发生严重退化,对源区草牧业生产、区域生态安全和中下游地区可持续发展造成一定影响。2000年以来,国家实施了一系列重大生态保护和建设工程,黄河源区生态环境质量得到逐步改善,但草地退化趋势尚未得到有效遏制。本文系统梳理了高寒地区草地生态保护与草牧业发展领域的研究与实践,凝练出区域适宜的黄河源区草地生态保护与生态草牧业发展技术体系,基于草畜资源优化配置建立了区域功能耦合发展模式,结合案例分析了相关技术的应用效果,并对源区退化草地管理与生态草牧业发展提出了建议。上述工作对推动黄河源区草地生态保护与高质量发展具有一定的启示作用。

关键词: 黄河源区, 高寒草地, 草地退化, 生态保护, 草牧业, 人工草地, 高质量发展

Abstract:

The source region of the Yellow River is an important ecological barrier and grass-based livestock husbandry area in China. It plays a significant role in ensuring the national ecological security and improving local pastoralists’ livelihood. Since the 1970s, alpine grasslands in this region have been degraded to varying degrees under the combined influences of climate change and human activity, which has posed certain threat for local grass-based livestock husbandry, regional ecological security, and the sustainable development of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. Since 2000 the state has implemented a series of ecological protection and construction projects to curb alpine grassland degradation in the source region of the Yellow River. As expected the grassland ecological environment in this area has been gradually improved since project implementation, but the grassland degradation trend has not been effectively curbed. In order to promote the ecological protection and economic development in the source region of the Yellow River, we systematically reviewed the research, demonstration and application works in relevant fields, and summarized a regional suitable technology system for grassland ecological protection and grass-based livestock husbandry development, then established a regional coupling development model based on the optimal allocation of grass-livestock resource. Additionally, we analyzed the application effects of related conservation and development technologies based on our case studies, also we proposed suggestions for the management of degraded alpine grassland and the development of ecological grass-based livestock husbandry in this region. The paper offers a certain enlightenment to promote the grassland ecological protection and high-quality development in the source area of the Yellow River.

Key words: source region of the Yellow River, alpine grasslands, grassland degradation, ecological protection, grass-based livestock husbandry, artificial grassland, high-quality development