资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (3): 486-498.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.03.07

• 专栏:黄河流域高质量发展的资源禀赋与统筹利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

1976年以来黄河三角洲海岸冲淤演变与入海水沙过程的关系

李贺1, 黄翀1(), 张晨晨1,2, 刘庆生1, 刘高焕1   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-24 修回日期:2020-02-29 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 黄翀
  • 作者简介:李贺,男,江苏徐州人,博士,助理研究员,研究方向为海岸带遥感。E-mail: lih@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23050101);国家自然科学基金重大项目(41890854)

Coastal erosion and sediment dynamics of the Yellow River Delta and their responses to the runoff-sediment flux since 1976

LI He1, HUANG Chong1(), ZHANG Chenchen1,2, LIU Qingsheng1, LIU Gaohuan1   

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-12-24 Revised:2020-02-29 Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-05-25
  • Contact: HUANG Chong

摘要:

受海陆交互作用影响,黄河三角洲海岸经常处于动态变化之中。及时掌握黄河三角洲海岸冲淤演变,不仅可以深化对黄河三角洲演化规律的认识,同时也为黄河下游水沙调控以及河口大保护战略实施提供科技支撑。本文选取1976—2018年的Landsat长时间序列卫星影像,在海岸线遥感提取,确定陆域面积的基础上,对黄河三角洲整体、北部岸段以及河口岸段分别进行了冲淤演变研究;在分析入海水沙年际及年内变化的基础上,探讨了调水调沙前后,河口冲淤演变与水沙的关系。研究结果表明:①43年来,三角洲陆地面积呈波动性起伏,总体以淤积为主;河口在1996年以前面积增长显著,多年平均造陆面积约17 km 2/a,之后造陆过程逐渐减缓。②调水调沙后,年输沙量下降速率从0.31亿t/a锐减到0.07亿t/a,最大输沙量减少了79.7%,汛期输沙量减少了74.8%。③随着入海沙量不断减少,水沙过程虽仍直接影响着河口现行流路的造陆过程,但海洋动力作用制约不断提高,河口累积造陆面积与输沙量的相关性由1976—1993年的0.93降低至2002年之后的0.39。总体上,调水调沙工程虽维持了三角洲造陆面积的稳步增长,但长远来看,并不能改变未来三角洲陆域面积趋于减少的事实。

关键词: 黄河三角洲, 冲淤演变, 水沙, Landsat, 河口, 调水调沙, 造陆

Abstract:

In order to analyze the coastal erosion and sediment dynamics of the Yellow River Delta and their responses to the runoff-sediment flux since 1976, satellite images of Landsat from 1976 to 2018 were acquired and used in this study. After the extraction of coastline and Yellow River Delta area, we analyzed the erosion and sediment dynamics of the whole area, the northern coast, and the estuary respectively. Then, the inter-annual and intra-annual variations of runoff and sediment were analyzed. At last, the relationship between coastal erosion and sediment dynamics and runoff and sediment flux in the estuary was discussed. The results show that: (1) The land area of the Yellow River Delta has increased over the past 43 years. Before 1996, the area of the estuary increased significantly, with an annual average increase of about 17 km 2. Then the landmaking process gradually slowed down. (2) After water-sediment regulation, the rate of annual sedimentation decreased from 31 million t to 0.7 million t, the maximum decreased by 79.7%, and sediment decreased by 74.8% during the flood season. (3) The continuous decrease of sediment directly affects the epeirogenic process of the current flow path of the estuary, while the dynamic constraints of the ocean are increasing. Correlation between the cumulative epeirogenic area of the estuary and annual sediment decreased from 0.93 in 1976-1993 to 0.39 after 2002. On the whole, although the water-sediment regulation has maintained the growth of delta land area, the land area of the delta tends to decrease in the future.

Key words: Yellow River Delta, erosion and sediment dynamics, water and sediment, Landsat, estuary, water-sediment regulation, epeirogenic area