资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (3): 446-459.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.03.04

• 专栏:黄河流域高质量发展的资源禀赋与统筹利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河流域河源区土地利用变化及其影响研究综述

陈琼1,2, 张镱锂3,4, 刘峰贵1,2(), 周强1,2, 汪生珍1, 成艺1, 郭蓉1, 支泽民1, 许寰戈1   

  1. 1.青海师范大学地理科学学院,西宁 810008
    2.高原科学与可持续发展研究院,西宁 810008
    3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    4.中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-12 修回日期:2020-03-03 出版日期:2020-03-25 发布日期:2020-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘峰贵
  • 作者简介:陈琼,女,博士,副教授,主要研究青藏高原土地资源和变化。E-mail: qhchenqiong@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合考察研究项目(2019QZKK0603);国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFA0606900);中国科学院战略先导专项(XDA20040200)

A review of land use change and its influence in the source region of the Yellow River

CHEN Qiong1,2, ZHANG Yili3,4, LIU Fenggui1,2(), ZHOU Qiang1,2, WANG Shengzhen1, CHENG Yi1, GUO Rong1, ZHI Zemin1, XU Huange1   

  1. 1.College of Geographic Sciences, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
    2.Institute of Plateau Science and Sustainable Development, Xining 810008, China
    3.Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4.Chinese Academy of Sciences Centerfor Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-12-12 Revised:2020-03-03 Online:2020-03-25 Published:2020-05-25
  • Contact: LIU Fenggui

摘要:

黄河流域河源区是国家生态屏障和“中华水塔”的重要组成部分,是生态保护优先的践行区。本文梳理了近40年来对黄河流域河源区土地利用格局和过程研究的相关文献,从土地利用现状、变化、效应及政策启示等方面进行了全面分析。研究发现:①黄河流域河源区土地利用格局相对稳定,草地面积占绝对优势。2000年是土地利用及其效应变化的重要转折点。2000年之前,草地、林地和湿地等生态用地减少,草地退化、沙化、土壤侵蚀等效应加剧。2000年之后,生态用地增加,植被指数增加,生态系统逐渐向良性方向转变,碳汇功能增强。②生态工程实施和气候变化使该区域土地利用及其效应极具复杂性。整体上土地退化面积有所减少,程度趋缓,草畜基本实现平衡。东部河湟谷地耕地面积减少,集约度提高,种植结构逐步优化;但局部恶化的态势依旧严峻,土壤侵蚀尤其高寒地带的冻融侵蚀加剧。建议应加强土地利用格局变化的影响因素、土地利用变化的生态效应以及生态保育区溢出价值与自然资产的评估研究,为黄河流域河源保护区可持续发展以供有力的科技支撑。

关键词: 黄河流域河源区, 土地利用变化, 影响, 社会经济, 生态优先, 生态效应

Abstract:

The upstream area of the Yellow River Basin in Qinghai Province is an important component of the national ecological barrier and the “water tower” of China, and a priority area for ecological protection. In this article, a set of relevant studies on land use pattern and process in this area over the past 40 years were reviewed, and the article comprehensively analyzed the current status, changes, and effects of land use and made policy recommendations. We found that: (1) There is a relatively stable land use pattern with grassland as the absolute dominant land-use type in the upstream area of the Yellow River Basin. An important turning point in land use occurred around 2000. Before then, ecological land such as grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands decreased and resulted in adverse effects such as land degradation, soil erosion, and desertification in the region. After 2000, ecological land and vegetation index increased, the ecosystem gradually changed to a healthier direction, and the carbon sink function is enhanced. (2) The implementation of a series of ecological projects and climate change make land use and its effects extremely complex. On the whole, the total area and degree of land degradation decreased to some extent, with grazing resources and livestock population largely balanced. The cultivated land area of the Yellow River-Huangshui River valley in the east has been decreasing, and agricultural intensification has increased significantly with the planting structure gradually optimized. Local deterioration is still severe, especially that soil erosion intensified in the freezing-thawing zone in alpine regions. (3) In the future, it is necessary to further research on the mechanism of ecological effects of land use, the contribution of environmental effects of ecological engineering and natural factors, and ecological service value to better understand the human-environment relationship in this study area.

Key words: source region of Yellow River, land use change, influence, social economy, ecological priority, ecological effect