资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 346-357.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.02.13

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

俄罗斯环北极地区地表径流变化及其原因

王冠1,2, 陈涵如3, 王平1(), 王田野1,2, 于静洁1,2, 刘昌明1, 杨林生4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
    4. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地表层格局与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-10 修回日期:2019-12-15 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2020-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 王平
  • 作者简介:王冠,女,河南新乡人,博士生,研究方向为生态水文。E-mail: wangg.16b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础资源调查专项子课题(2017FY101301);国家科技基础资源调查专项子课题(2017FY101302);中国科学院重点部署项目(ZDRW-ZS-2017-4);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项子课题(XDA2003020101)

Surface runoff changes and their causes in the Russian pan-Arctic Region

WANG Guan1,2, CHEN Hanru3, WANG Ping1(), WANG Tianye1,2, YU Jingjie1,2, LIU Changming1, YANG Linsheng4   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
    4. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-10-10 Revised:2019-12-15 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-04-25
  • Contact: WANG Ping

摘要:

本文利用The Global Runoff Data Base (GRDB)和The Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (ArcticGRO)地表径流数据研究了1930年以来的俄罗斯环北极地区六大河流地表径流变化规律,并综述了气候变化和人类活动对地表径流的影响,为进一步科学理解气候变化和人类活动背景下的俄罗斯环北极地区的径流变化规律,进行水资源合理开发利用提供理论依据。结果表明:①北德维纳河、伯朝拉河、鄂毕河、叶尼塞河、勒拿河和科雷马河年径流量分别以每年1.53 m 3/s、7.27 m 3/s、15.37 m 3/s、19.59 m 3/s、38.41 m 3/s、21.15 m 3/s的速率呈增加趋势。径流的年内分布特征表现为春季和夏季的洪峰流量降低,冬季径流量增加,径流年内分配趋向更加均匀。②径流量的年际变化主要受气候变化影响,人类活动对大部分地区的年径流量影响不大,气候变化和人类活动两大因素共同驱动改变了径流的年内分布特征。研究结论对深入理解气候变化影响下的北极河流径流变化、探讨一带一路背景下的跨界水资源合作开发,以及制定北极变化的减缓和适应对策具有一定参考价值。

关键词: 地表径流, 气候变化, 人类活动, 环北极地区, 俄罗斯

Abstract:

Using the surface runoff data from the Global Runoff Data Base (GRDB) and the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (ArcticGRO), this study analyzed the surface runoff variation characteristics of the six major river basins in the pan-Arctic region of Russia since 1930, and summarized the impacts of climate change and human activities on the surface runoff. The results provide a theoretical basis to further the scientific understanding of the runoff changes in the Arctic region of Russia under the background of climate change and increasing human activities, and for the rational development and utilization of water resources in the region. The results show that the annual runoff of the Severnaja Dvina, Pechora, Ob, Yenisei, Lena, and Kolyma Rivers increased at a rate of 1.53 m 3/s, 7.27 m 3/s, 15.37 m 3/s, 19.59 m 3/s, 38.41 m 3/s, and 21.15 m 3/s, respectively. The seasonal distribution characteristics of runoff are characterized by a decrease in flood peak flow during spring and summer, and an increase in runoff during winter. Seasonal distribution of surface runoff tended to be more even during the year. The change in annual runoff is mainly affected by climate change. In contrast, human activities have little effect on annual runoff in most areas. The two dominant factors, climate change and human activities, jointly drive the change in the annual distribution of runoff. Annual runoff of these rivers has increased as a result of global warming, while the annual distribution of runoff tends to be uniform under the combined effects of climate change and human activities.

Key words: surface runoff, climate change, human activities, pan-Arctic region, Russia