资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 298-310.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.02.09

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

农户隐性占地行为与宅基地改革路径

黄砺   

  1. 中国地质大学(武汉)公共管理学院,武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-10 修回日期:2019-12-15 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2020-04-25
  • 作者简介:黄砺,男,江西九江人,讲师,主要研究方向为农村土地制度分析。E-mail: huangli@cug.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(19YJC790040);自然资源部法律评价工程重点实验室开放基金项目(CUGFP-1906)

Farmers’ recessive land occupation behavior and homestead reform path

HUANG Li   

  1. School of Public Administration, China University of Geoscience, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Received:2019-07-10 Revised:2019-12-15 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-04-25

摘要:

在中国广大农村地区,不同程度地存在着“一户多宅”“一人一宅”“建新不拆旧”“少批多占”等违反相关法律的农户隐性占地行为,迟滞了新型城镇化建设和城乡统筹发展。本文以农户隐性占地行为为出发点,在宅基地功能属性变迁的研究视角下,探讨了农户隐性占地行为出现的根源以及宅基地制度相关试点改革的政策取向。首先,通过回顾宅基地计划分配制度与宅基地功能属性的变迁,发现现行的宅基地计划分配制度是建立于居住保障属性之上,一定程度上无法适应宅基地居住保障属性减弱以及资产属性彰显的社会现实。然后,本文分别从理论模型和现实情景的角度出发,来刻画分析农民如何通过宅基地的隐性占有行为来突破计划分配制度的限制。最后,通过整理部分宅基地改革试点县域的政策文本,发现目前的试点改革工作是从“维护宅基地的居住保障属性”与“适应宅基地资产属性彰显”这两个维度同时展开的,且前者明显受到试点县域的青睐和重视,而后者的改革则显得举步维艰。只有同时兼顾宅基地的居住保障属性和资产属性,才能实现对农户宅基地隐性占地行为的有效治理。

关键词: 宅基地, 隐性占有, 计划分配, 功能属性, 改革路径

Abstract:

In the vast rural areas of China, there exists famers’ recessive land occupation behavior against relevant laws and regulations, such as one household having several residences, one person having one house, building new houses without relocating from existing ones, and occupation exceeding approved amount of land, which have negative effects on the new-type urbanization and urban-rural integrated development. With farmers’ recessive land occupation behavior as the starting point, this article discussed the causes of farmers’ recessive land occupation behavior and the policy orientation of relevant pilot reforms from the perspective of homestead functional property change. First, through reviewing the change of homestead planned distribution system and homestead functional property, this study found that the existing homestead planned distribution system established on the basis of residential guarantee property cannot adapt to the reality of the weakening residential guarantee property and the highlighting of asset property. Then the article depicted how farmers break the limit of planned distribution system through recessive homestead occupation using a theoretical model and based on actual situations. Last, through examining the policy documents of some homestead reform pilot towns, this study found that the on-going pilot reforms are carried out in the two dimensions simultaneously, that is, “maintaining the residential guarantee property of homestead” and “adapting to highlighting asset property of homestead.” In addition, the former has clearly been favored and valued by pilot towns but the reform of the latter seems in a difficult situation. Only by considering both the residential guarantee property and the asset property of homesteads of farmers, we can achieve the effective management of farmers’ recessive land occupation behavior.

Key words: homestead, recessive occupation, planned distribution, functional property, reform path