资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 251-261.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.02.05

• 资源经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

资源开发过程中腐败的发生及制度影响

赵伟伟, 白永秀   

  1. 西北大学经济管理学院,西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-15 修回日期:2020-01-11 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2020-04-25
  • 作者简介:赵伟伟,女,山东滨州人,讲师,研究方向为资源经济学。E-mail: zhaoweinwu@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    陕西省软科学研究计划项目(2015KRM106)

Corruption in the exploitation of natural resources and effect of institution

ZHAO Weiwei, BAI Yongxiu   

  1. School of Economics and Management, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127, China
  • Received:2019-07-15 Revised:2020-01-11 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-04-25

摘要:

本文理论推导资源与腐败的关系并以中国省级数据进行经验检验。理论推演显示资源特殊性及资源收益是资源丰裕地区腐败的起点,但必须在资源收益分配制度不完善和资源管理存在自由裁量权的制度条件下才导致腐败,传导路径是“资源特殊性—资源收益—收益分配机制缺失—超额利润—经济寻租—政治寻租—自由裁量权—腐败”。经验检验使用1998—2017年省级年均截面数据和根据政治周期划分的短面板数据,量化资源开发、制度质量和腐败的关系,结果表明:资源开发单独不导致腐败,不考虑制度的调节效应,资源开发对腐败的影响小且不显著。加入制度和资源开发的交叉项后,资源开发对腐败的影响变得显著,但方向不确定;取中国各省份1998—2017年制度质量的均值,发现资源开发显著增加了腐败;但近20年中国各省份制度质量稳步提高,“资源腐败”大有改善。制度质量的阈值效应意味着只要区域制度质量提高到该阈值以上,资源丰裕地区即可避免“资源腐败”。另外制度质量并非资源诅咒的传导机制,即资源开发并没有降低制度质量进而“诅咒”区域发展。因此,资源丰裕地区治理腐败的关键是资源收益分配制度和资源管理制度的完善和创新。

关键词: 资源, 腐败, 发生机制, 制度质量, 中国

Abstract:

In this study, the relationship between natural resources and corruption is theoretically deduced and tested empirically with provincial data in China. Theoretical analysis shows that the particularities of natural resources and the inevitable resource benefits are the starting point of corruption in resource-rich regions, but corruption can only be caused by imperfect resource benefits management institutions and existence of discretion in natural resource management system. The specific mechanism is particularities-resource income-lack of benefits distribution mechanism-excess profits-economic rent-seeking-political rent-seeking-discretion-corruption. The empirical test quantifies the relationship between resource mining, institution quality, and corruption with 1998-2017 provincial average annual cross-sectional data and short panel data divided according to the political cycle. The results show three implications. Firstly natural resources development does not lead to corruption directly because the impact of resource development on corruption is small and insignificant. With the interaction terms of resources development and institution quality, the impact of resource development has become significant, but the direction is uncertain. That is there is a threshold for institution quality. If taking the average value of insitution quality of Chinese provinces from 1998 to 2017, the coefficients were significantly. As long as institution quality of regions are above the threshold, “resource corruption” in resource-rich regions can be avoided. In addition, institution quality is not a transmission channel of the resource curse. that is, the development of resources has not reduced institution quality and “cursed” regional development. Therefore, the key of corruption elimination in resource-rich regions is innovation and improvement of resource-related institutions.

Key words: natural resources, corruption, mechanism, institution quality, China