资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 207-216.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.02.01

• 资源经济 •    下一篇

中国县域乡村发展类型及时空变化

张正峰, 张阿曼   

  1. 中国人民大学公共管理学院,北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-10 修回日期:2019-09-05 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2020-04-25
  • 作者简介:张正峰,男,山东泰安人,教授,研究方向为土地利用。E-mail: zhengfengzh@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71874196);中国人民大学“中央高校建设世界一流大学(学科)和特色发展引导专项资金”项目

Rural development types of counties in China and historical change

ZHANG Zhengfeng, ZHANG Aman   

  1. School of Public Administration and Policy, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2019-07-10 Revised:2019-09-05 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2020-04-25

摘要:

全国尺度下以县级行政区划(市辖区除外)为单元,划分乡村发展类型并探索其空间分布和变迁规律,不仅可以丰富乡村发展的实践研究,还对因地制宜地实施乡村振兴战略具有重要意义。以2000年和2015年为研究时点,以三次产业结构占比为依据,将中国县域划分为农业主导型、工业主导型、商旅服务型以及均衡发展型4种乡村发展类型,探讨各乡村发展类型的时空演变规律以及类型转换趋势。研究结果表明:①2000年与2015年,中国均有50%以上的县域属于均衡发展型,其余类型按照数量比例由大到小依次为工业主导型、农业主导型和商旅服务型,对比两个年度各县域乡村发展类型的数量,占比都没有大的变动。②2000年与2015年各县域乡村发展类型呈现不同的区域分布规律,15年间,4种乡村发展类型的分布都呈现出由比较分散到相对集中的变化过程,其中最突出的是农业主导型和工业主导型,由2005年的多个分散带转变为2015年的5大集中带。③2000—2015年,多种乡村发展类型发生了转换,按照数量比例,前6种转换类型分别为工业→均衡发展型、均衡→工业主导型、均衡→农业主导型、农业→均衡发展型、商旅→均衡发展型、均衡→商旅服务型,各转化类型在中国均有较为集中的分布区域。区域发展战略的调整、地方资源条件的变化以及地区比较优势的转变使中国的县域乡村发展类型在空间分布、变化过程以及不同类型的转换趋势上呈现出不同的规律。

关键词: 乡村发展类型, 县域, 时空格局, 变化, 转型, 中国

Abstract:

In the new era of socioeconomic development in China, examining the types of rural development is an important task in implementing the strategy of rural revitalization. The purpose of this study was to trace the temporal and spatial changes of rural development types at the county level in China in order to identify the scale and spatial layout of various rural development types over the past decades. The main method is as follows: According to the proportions of the three main industrial sectors in 2000 and 2015, all county-level units (except municipal districts) are classified into agricultural-oriented, industrial-oriented, business-service, as well as the balanced development models. By means of spatial analysis in GIS, this study analyzed and summarized the differentiation and characteristics of change of the countrywide rural development pathways, and further connected the resulting pattern with the adjustment of regional development strategies. The results show that: (1) The types of rural development at the county level in 2000 and 2015 show different regional distribution patterns, which are related to the current situation of land use, the change of natural resources endowments, and the adjustment of national regional development strategies in different regions in a given period of time. (2) During the 15 years from 2000 to 2015, the first six major change types (each accounting for more than 5%) are industrial to balanced type, balanced to industrial type, balanced to agricultural type, agricultural to balanced type, business and tourism to balanced type, and balanced to business and tourism development type. (3) As a whole, the concentrated belts of all types of development are more “crowded” in the central and western regions by 2015, while the county-level units in most parts of the eastern region, especially the southeast, are dominated by balanced development type. The conclusions are that there are many types of rural development throughout the country, and the spatiotemporal changes are complex. The pattern of change is closely related to the continuously adjusted regional development strategy in the country.

Key words: type of rural development, county unit, spatiotemporal pattern, change, transformation, China