资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 184-196.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.18

• 高质量发展路径 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河流域农区贫困特征及其影响因素

乔家君1, 朱乾坤1, 辛向阳2   

  1. 1. 黄河中下游数字地理技术教育部重点实验室,环境与规划国家级实验教学示范中心,河南大学区域发展与规划研究中心/环境与规划学院,开封 475004
    2. 河南省城乡规划设计研究总院有限公司小城镇发展研究中心,郑州 450044
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-02 修回日期:2019-12-19 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-01-25
  • 作者简介:乔家君,男,河南睢县人,博士,河南省特聘教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为乡村地理学。E-mail: jjqiao@henu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671172)

Spatial characteristics and influencing factors of rural poverty in the Yellow River Basin

QIAO Jiajun1, ZHU Qiankun1, XIN Xiangyang2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for the Middle and Lower Yellow River Regions, Ministry of Education; National Demonstration Center for Environmental and Planning; Research Center of Regional Development & Planning / College of Environment & Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China;
    2. Research Center for Small Town Development, Henan Urban and Rural Planning and Design Institute Co. Ltd., Zhengzhou 450044, China
  • Received:2019-12-02 Revised:2019-12-19 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-01-25

摘要:

中国创造性地实施精准扶贫政策以来,减贫人口和减贫效果均较显著,在世界反贫困史上取得了举世瞩目的成就。黄河流域作为中国贫困人口众多的典型区域,开展整体性、系统性解析具有重要意义。本文利用ArcGIS、地理探测器等工具,以356个贫困空间单元为基础,通过研究发现:①黄河流域上游、中游农区呈现出贫困人口多、贫困程度深,且具有明显的空间集聚特征;②黄河流域贫困具有明显的空间异质性,流域整体和上、中、下游各地区所受影响因素的作用强度不同,经济因素对贫困解释力较强,部分因子交互作用呈现“1+1>2”的互补增强效应;③黄河流域农区致贫因子各异,且作用强度不同,呈现出自然贫困→经济贫困→社会贫困的变化态势,而社会贫困难以改善自然贫困,最终形成“贫困循环怪圈”,其中自然因素是贫困发生的基础性因素,经济因素是贫困发展的主导性因素,社会因素则是解决贫困的关键性因素。

关键词: 黄河流域, 农区贫困, 影响因素, 空间异质性, 空间自相关, 地理探测器

Abstract:

China creatively implemented the precision poverty alleviation policy in 2014 and has made significant achievements in reducing population in poverty and poverty reduction, which is remarkable in the anti-poverty history of the world. As the key area of poverty in China, the Yellow River Basin is in urgent need of an overall and systematic analysis of its poverty status and poverty alleviation situation. Based on the data of 356 county-level administrative units and using ArcGIS and geographical detector tools, this study found that: (1) Rural areas in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin showed typical characteristics of poor population, deep poverty, and spatial agglomeration of population in poverty. (2) Poverty distribution of the rural Yellow River Basin showed clear spatial heterogeneity; the intensity of the influencing factors basin-wide and in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the basin was different; and the explanatory power of the economic factors to poverty was stronger than other factors. The interaction between some factors showed a synergetic effect of 1+1> 2. (3) Environmental poverty led to economic poverty, which in turn caused social poverty, and social factors are not conducive to improving the environmental poverty, and thus a “poverty loop” was formed in the rural areas of the Yellow River Basin. Environmental factors were the basic causal factors of poverty, economic factors were the leading factors of poverty development, and social factors were the key factors for solving the problem of rural poverty.

Key words: Yellow River Basin, rural poverty, influencing factors, spatial heterogeneity, spatial autocorrelation, geographical detector