资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 137-149.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.14

• 高质量发展路径 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河流域矿产资源开发的生态环境影响与空间管控路径

马丽1,2, 田华征1, 康蕾1,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-04 修回日期:2019-12-23 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 康蕾
  • 作者简介:马丽,女,山西祁县人,博士,副研究员,研究方向为能源、产业地理与区域发展。E-mail: <email>mali@igsnrr.ac.cn</email>
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院先导专项(XDA19040403);生态环境部2019年环境影响评价管理项目(2110107)

Eco-environmental impact and spatial control of mineral resources exploitation in the Yellow River Basin

MA Li1,2, TIAN Huazheng1, KANG Lei1,*()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-12-04 Revised:2019-12-23 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-01-25
  • Contact: KANG Lei

摘要:

黄河流域作为中国的“能源流域”,合理有序开发矿产资源、统筹协调矿产资源开发与生态环境保护之间的关系,对于黄河流域能矿经济可持续发展和生态保护具有重要现实意义。本文以黄河流域为研究区,综合运用多指标综合评价法、胁迫耦合分析法和GIS空间分析等方法技术,从生态本底的脆弱程度、对重要生态功能区的空间胁迫性以及对重要生态环境因子的胁迫程度等多个层面,分析了区域矿产资源开发对生态环境的胁迫特征及空间分布,将黄河流域46个矿区城市划分为本底胁迫、生态功能胁迫、开发胁迫、本底+开发胁迫、开发+生态功能胁迫、本底+生态功能胁迫、全面胁迫和无胁迫8种不同类型区,并从生态环境保护的角度提出黄河流域矿产资源开发地区的管控路径:①空间管控:严格限制大规模高强度工业化城镇化开发,尤其是控制矿区的开发边界;②强度管控:针对于生态本底脆弱的地区,强度和总体开发规模的管控要兼而并举;③开发方式管控:注重能矿产业的结构调整与升级,在空间上要注重集中建设,宜矿则矿、宜工则工、宜聚则聚。

关键词: 矿产资源开发, 生态环境影响, 胁迫, 空间管控, 黄河流域

Abstract:

The Yellow River Basin is also known as China’s energy basin. Rational and orderly exploitation of mineral resources and overall coordination of the relationship between mineral resources exploitation and ecological environment protection are of great practical significance for the sustainable development of energy and mineral resources and ecological protection in the region. Taking the Yellow River Basin as the study area, this study comprehensively analyzed the characteristics and spatial distribution of environmental stress of regional mineral resources exploitation using multi-indicator comprehensive evaluation method, stress coupling analysis method, and GIS spatial analysis from the perspectives of ecological background fragility, spatial stress to important ecological function areas, and the degree of stress to important ecological environment factors. The 46 mining cities in the Yellow River Basin were divided into eight types, including background stress areas, ecological function stress areas, development stress areas, background with development stress areas, development with ecological function stress areas, background with ecological function stress areas, comprehensive stress areas, and no stress areas. Finally, the article put forward the control path of mineral resources development areas in the Yellow River Basin in view of ecological environment protection, including: (1) Spatial management and control by strictly restricting large-scale and high-intensity industrialization and urbanization development, especially controlling the development boundary of mining areas. (2) Intensity control for areas with fragile ecological background, the intensity and the overall development scale should be controlled simultaneously. (3) Development mode control to pay attention to the structural adjustment and upgrading of energy and mining industries. It is necessary to focus on spatially concentrated development of mining in places where mining is suitable, of industry where industrial development is suitable, and of cities and towns where urban development is suitable.

Key words: mineral resources exploitation, eco-environmental impact, stress, spatial control, Yellow River Basin