资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 104-114.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.11

• 生态保护与恢复 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于水鸟栖息地恢复的黄河三角洲水资源综合利用策略

袁秀1, 孙燕燕2,*(), 王计平3, 于莉莉2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院,北京 100190
    2. 东营市自然资源局,东营 257091
    3. 中国林业科学研究院 国家林业和草原局盐碱地研究中心,北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-17 修回日期:2019-12-31 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 孙燕燕
  • 作者简介:袁秀,女,重庆渝北区人,助理研究员,博士,研究方向为资源环境可持续发展。E-mail: yuanxiu@casisd.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0505802-3)

Comprehensive utilization of water resources in the Yellow River Delta for waterfowl habitat restoration

YUAN Xiu1, SUN Yanyan2,*(), WANG Jiping3, YU Lili2   

  1. 1. Institutes of Science and Development, CAS, Beijing 100190, China
    2. Dongying Natural Resources Bureau, Dongying 257091, China
    3. Research Center of Saline and Alkali Land of State Administration of Forestry and Grassland, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
  • Received:2019-12-17 Revised:2019-12-31 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-01-25
  • Contact: SUN Yanyan

摘要:

黄河三角洲是国际重要水鸟停歇地,由于受自然因素和人类活动的影响,该地区水鸟栖息地面积不断减少,生物多样性不断降低。通过引用淡水对栖息地进行恢复,能大大提高水鸟的生境质量,增加水鸟的多样性。然而该地区淡水资源短缺,农业、工业和生活用水量大,生态用水量严重不足,如何因地制宜地利用淡水、海水和废水资源,发挥湿地保护生物多样性及净化环境的功能成为水鸟栖息地恢复的关键问题。本文总结了黄河三角洲的水鸟多样性及其生境需求,归纳了水资源的应用现状。在淡水资源短缺情况下,使用淡水、海水和废水3种不同水源补给湿地时,水鸟及其栖息地的特征和面临的挑战。结合水鸟迁徙、黄河来水的时间特征、水鸟栖息地斑块尺度和区域尺度需求特征、不同水源的用水现状、恢复效果及空间分布特征等要素,提出了综合利用海水、淡水和废水对区域和斑块尺度的生境类型进行配置的生态补水恢复模式,建议斑块尺度重点考虑水深及水面植被比例,区域尺度重点考虑水资源分布及自然和人工不同类型湿地的空间优化配置,最后从多样性维持以及不同水资源综合有效利用方面提出了未来研究展望。本文结果旨在为黄河三角洲湿地恢复和水鸟生物多样性提高提供科学依据。

关键词: 水鸟, 栖息地, 淡水, 废水, 海水, 海岸带湿地, 生物多样性, 黄河三角洲

Abstract:

The Yellow River Delta is an internationally important stopover place for waterfowl, but natural factors and human activities have resulted in loss of waterfowl habitat and biological diversity in this area. The habitat quality and diversity of waterfowl can be greatly improved by using fresh water to restore habitat. However, with fresh water shortage and large water consumption in agriculture, domestic use, and industry in this area, ecological water consumption is insufficient. In this case, how to utilize fresh water, sea water, and waste water adaptively considering the local conditions and give full play to the wetland function to protect biodiversity and purify the environment become the key problem to bird habitat restoration. This article summarized the diversity and the habitat requirements of waterfowl in the Yellow River Delta, and examined the water use status and the demands and challenges to the habitat of waterfowl in this area. We also analyzed the measures to restore waterfowl habitat, resource availability, restoration effects, challenges of waterfowl habitat restoration using fresh water, sea water, and waste water, and then proposed some research prospects. We hope that this article can provide a scientific foundation for the optimized measures of waterfowl habitat restoration for improving waterfowl diversity. Bases on the migration of waterfowl, temporal pattern of Yellow River water discharge, patch pattern of waterfowl habitat, status of water utilization, the wetland type after water diversion, and spatial distribution of different kinds of water resources, we recommend to comprehensively use fresh water, sea water, and waste water to restore waterfowl habitat by considering the temporal patterns of water supply, spatial arrangements of habitats, and a combination of the different habitat types at the same patch, with the purpose of giving full play to the wetland function and improving the biological diversity.

Key words: waterfowl, habitat, freshwater, waste water, sea water, coastal wetland, biodiversity, Yellow River Delta