资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 78-86.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.08

• 生态保护与恢复 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江源草地多功能性及其调控途径

赵亮1,2, 李奇1,2, 赵新全1,2,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,高原生物适应与进化重点实验室,西宁 810008
    2. 中国科学院三江源国家公园研究院,西宁 810008
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-19 修回日期:2020-01-05 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵新全
  • 作者简介:赵亮,男,青海乐都人,研究员,研究方向为草地生态学。E-mail: lzhao@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA23060604);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA2002030302);青海省重点研发与转化计划项目(2019-SF-153);2018年度“西部之光”人才培养计划项目

Multi-functionality and management of grassland in the Sanjiangyuan region

ZHAO Liang1,2, LI Qi1,2, ZHAO Xinquan1,2,*()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS, Xining 810008, China
    2. Institute of Sanjiangyuan National Park, CAS, Xining 810008, China
  • Received:2019-12-19 Revised:2020-01-05 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-01-25
  • Contact: ZHAO Xinquan

摘要:

三江源区是地球第三极典型代表区域之一,具有世界上独一无二的生物物种及其组成的生态系统,发育和保持着世界上大面积原始的高寒生态系统,是中国和亚洲重要的淡水供给地,也是黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展的源头和重点区。生态系统服务、自然景观、生物多样性具有全国乃至全球意义的保护价值。草地是三江源的主要植被类型,由草地管理引起的诸多生态、环境、社会问题,其管理和治理不仅是牧区的问题,也是包括黄河、长江、澜沧江等江河流域的问题。本文综述了三江源草地管理的现状、问题和需求;提出了基于草地生态系统服务和人类对草地“生产—生态—生活”多目标需求的多重管理目标及管理框架,建立三江源区域草地进行多重目标管理的调控途径及技术支撑;以期对三江源生态可持续发展、国家公园建设和黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展及后续相关政策的制定提供一定的启示。

关键词: 三江源, 草地, 多功能性, 多重目标管理, 调控途径, 适应性管理

Abstract:

As one of the representative regions of the third pole on Earth, Sanjiangyuan has unique species and ecosystems composed of these species. It develops and maintains large areas of original alpine ecosystem, and is an important source of fresh water for China and Asia. It is also the source and key area of ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. Ecosystem services, natural landscapes, and biodiversity have conservation value of national and global significance. Grassland is the main type of vegetation in the Sanjiangyuan region. Due to many ecological, environmental, and social problems caused by inappropriate grassland use, grassland management and governance is not only a pastoral resource management issue, but also an issue of river basin management of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River, and the Lantsang River Basins. This article summarized the present situation, problems, and demands of grassland management in the Sanjiangyuan region. Multi-objective management goals were proposed based on the ecosystem service functions of the grassland and human demands for production-ecological protection-livelihood security. A multi-objective management framework was put forward, and the regulatory approach and technical support for the multi-objective management of grassland in the Sanjiangyuan region were established. These will provide an important inspiration and guidance for the sustainable ecological development of the region, the construction of national parks, the development of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, and subsequent formulation of relevant policies.

Key words: Sanjiangyuan, grassland, multi-functionality, multi-objective management, regulatory approaches, adaptive management