资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 46-56.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.05

• 水资源与水安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河流域水权制度的问题、挑战和对策

沈大军, 阿丽古娜, 陈琛*()   

  1. 中国人民大学环境学院,北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-25 修回日期:2019-12-24 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈琛
  • 作者简介:沈大军,男,浙江慈溪人,博士,教授,博导,主要从事水资源管理研究。E-mail: dajunshen@yahoo.com

Water rights system in the Yellow River Basin: Problems, challenges, and suggestions

SHEN Dajun, ALI Guna, CHEN Chen*()   

  1. School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2019-11-25 Revised:2019-12-24 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-01-25
  • Contact: CHEN Chen

摘要:

流域水权制度建设是黄河水沙关系调节的关键。本文基于中国水权制度建设框架,回顾了黄河流域水权制度的发展过程,分析了存在的问题和面临的挑战,并提出了完善黄河流域水权制度的建议。黄河流域是中国现代水权制度建设的典范,通过自发和问题驱动机制,流域制定了水量分配方案、开展了水量调度、探索了水权转换和进行了水权明晰。但流域水权制度建设没有完成,存在用水计划没有灵活性、用户没有选择性、交易没有市场以及调度取代取水许可管理等问题。同时,水权制度还面临40年来流域经济、社会和生态环境的剧烈变化,以及水资源量、用水结构和水沙关系的根本性转变。最后,建议黄河流域进一步明晰水权、建立生态和环境水权、构建水权交易机制、转变机构职能和进一步推进水资源监测、计量和管理系统建设。

关键词: 水权制度, 水权明晰, 水权交易, 生态和环境水权, 黄河流域

Abstract:

River basin water rights system development is the key for regulating the water and sedimentation relationship in the Yellow River. This article, in accordance with the national water rights system development framework, reviews the development process of and analyzes problems and challenges faced by, and provides recommendations for improving the water rights system in the Yellow River Basin. As the model of modern water rights system development in China, driven by the problems, the Yellow River Basin has formulated water resources allocation plans, conducted water resources regulation, and explored water rights transfer and water rights clarification. But the system has not been completed and problems exist, including inflexible water use plan, no choice for users, no market for trading, and replacement of water extraction management by regulation, among others. More importantly, the system has been facing radical changes in socioeconomic development and in the ecological environment, as well as fundamental changes in water resources, use structure, and water-sedimentation relationship in the basin in the past 40 years. The article recommended to complete water rights clarification, establish eco-environment water rights, introduce water rights trading mechanism, shift management agency functions, and improve water resources management basis for the Yellow River Basin.

Key words: water rights system, water rights clarification, water rights trading, eco-environment water rights, Yellow River Basin