资源科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 37-45.doi: 10.18402/resci.2020.01.04

• 水资源与水安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

跨界河流分水理论方法及黄河分水新方案计算

左其亭1,2,3, 吴滨滨1, 张伟2,3, 马军霞1   

  1. 1. 郑州大学水利科学与工程学院,郑州 450001
    2. 郑州大学黄河生态保护与区域协调发展研究院,郑州 450001
    3. 郑州市水资源与水环境重点实验室,郑州 450001
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-09 修回日期:2019-12-20 出版日期:2020-01-25 发布日期:2020-01-25
  • 作者简介:左其亭,男,河南固始人,博士,教授,博导,主要从事水文学及水资源研究。E-mail: zuoqt@zzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51779230);国家自然科学基金项目(U1803241)

A method of water distribution in transboundary rivers and the new calculation scheme of the Yellow River water distribution

ZUO Qiting1,2,3, WU Binbin1, ZHANG Wei2,3, MA Junxia1   

  1. 1. School of Water Conservancy Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
    2. Yellow River Institute for Ecological Protection & Regional Coordinated Development, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China;
    3. Zhengzhou Key Laboratory of Water Resource and Environment, Zhengzhou 450001, China
  • Received:2019-12-09 Revised:2019-12-20 Online:2020-01-25 Published:2020-01-25

摘要:

跨界河流分水问题关系着河流健康、人水关系,影响着区域协调发展甚至安全稳定。黄河水量分配是关系到国计民生的大事,是黄河重大国家战略实施需要攻克的主要难点问题之一。目前国内外关于跨界河流分水的研究较多,但一直没有准确、合理的定论,黄河“八七”分水已经经历了30多年,急需要调整却难以进行。本文基于资料搜集及大量文献分析,总结跨界河流分水思想、原理及规则,提出一套系统的跨界河流分水计算方法,即“基于分水思想—分水原理—分水规则的多方法综合—动态—和谐分水方法”(简称SDH方法);在此基础上,应用该理论方法并充分考虑黄河流域实际和广大科技工作者的智慧,计算得出黄河分水新方案,并进行结果分析。得到如下结论:①跨界河流分水是一道难题,涉及到人与自然、人与人的复杂关系,需要树立先进的分水思想,包括可承载分水思想、和谐分水思想、公平分水思想、共享用水思想和系统分析思想;②提出的分水方法综合考虑现状分水方案、现状用水和未来用水需求、人口、GDP、流域面积以及总体最优等因素,随可分配水量变化而同比变化,并符合最小需水和用水效率约束,是非常合适的;③黄河“八七”分水方案需要调整,考虑总可分配水量的变化,分别计算确定了假设分配水量370亿和300亿m 3两种情况下的黄河分水新方案(称为“19ZQT”分水方案),并分析论证了该方案的合理性。

关键词: 黄河分水, “八七”分水方案;, 分水规则, 和谐论, 跨界河流

Abstract:

The problem of transboundary river water distribution is related to river health, human - water relationship, regional coordinated development, and security and stability of societies. Water distribution of the Yellow River is one of the major difficulties faced in the implementation of the Yellow River national strategy, which is related to the national economy and people’s livelihood. At present, there are many studies on transboundary river water distribution in China and internationally, but accurate and reasonable conclusions have yet to be reached. The 1987 water distribution scheme for the Yellow River has been implemented for more than 30 years and changes are urgently needed. In this study, through data collection and analysis of a large amount of literature, the thoughts, principles, and rules of water distribution in transboundary rivers were summarized, and a set of systematic calculation methods of water distribution in transboundary rivers was put forward. This new approach is characterized by multi-method synthesis-dynamic analysis-harmonious water distribution based on the thoughts, principles, and rules of water distribution (SDH method for short). On this basis, the theoretical method was applied and the actual situation of the Yellow River Basin and the results of existing scientific research were fully considered. The results are as follows: (1) Water distribution in transboundary rivers is a difficult problem, which involves the complicated relationships between human and nature and between people; (2) The proposed water distribution method takes into account factors such as current water distribution scheme, current water use, future water demand, population, GDP, river basin area, and the overall optimal distribution, changes year on year with the change of the quantity of distributable water, and meets the minimum water demand and water use efficiency constraints; (3) The 1987 water distribution scheme for the Yellow River needs to be adjusted. Considering the change of the total distributable water amount, a new scheme for the Yellow River water distribution under the two scenarios of 37 billion and 30 billion m 3of assumed distributable water is determined respectively (the “19ZQT” water distribution scheme), and the suitability of the scheme was analyzed and demonstrated.

Key words: Yellow River water distribution, water distribution scheme of 1987, water distribution rules, harmony theory, transboundary rivers