资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (12): 2307-2315.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.12.14

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市耕地表层土壤有机碳分布及其影响因素

孔祥斌1, 胡莹洁2, 李月1, 段增强1   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学土地科学与技术学院,北京 100193
    2. 江西师范大学城市建设学院,南昌 330022
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-27 修回日期:2019-09-24 出版日期:2019-12-25 发布日期:2019-12-25
  • 作者简介:孔祥斌,男,河北承德人,教授,研究方向为耕地利用与保护,耕地质量评价。E-mail: kxb@cau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    北京市自然科学基金重点项目(8151001);国家自然科学基金项目(41771561)

Distribution and influencing factors of soil organic carbon of cultivated land topsoil in Beijing

KONG Xiangbin1, HU Yingjie2, LI Yue1, DUAN Zengqiang1   

  1. 1. College of Land Sciences and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    2. College of City Construction, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
  • Received:2018-09-27 Revised:2019-09-24 Online:2019-12-25 Published:2019-12-25

摘要:

土壤有机碳既是影响全球气候变化的生态因子,也是影响耕地质量的肥力因子,研究耕地土壤有机碳分布特征及其影响因素对增加耕地碳储量和提升耕地生产能力具有重要指导意义。本文以北京市为研究区,以第二次土壤普查的土壤类型及质地数据、2010年测土配方施肥项目土壤养分调查成果、数字高程模型(DEM)及耕地种植类型分布图为基础数据,分析区域耕地土壤有机碳密度及储量空间分布特征。结果表明:①2010年北京市耕地表层土壤平均有机碳密度为22.51 t/hm 2,碳储量为990.34×10 4 t;②北京市西北部山区以及城市近郊区耕地碳密度较大,各区县中耕地表层土壤平均有机碳密度最大的是门头沟区,达39.93 t/hm 2;③地形、土壤类型、土壤质地及种植类型对耕地土壤有机碳密度均有影响,具随着海拔升高耕地土壤有机碳密度整体呈增加趋势;土壤类型为棕壤、褐土的耕地有机碳密度显著高于其他类型,整体表现出土壤质地越黏重土壤有机碳密度越大的趋势;利用方式为非粮作物的耕地土壤有机碳密度略高于粮食作物;④综合分析表明,在中山、低山区域春玉米土壤碳密度最高,而在丘陵、平原区则是露天菜、设施农业碳密度最高。当前北京市耕地利用调整应综合考虑当地地貌地形、土壤条件以及人为利用因素对耕地表层土壤有机碳的影响,因地制宜提高或保持耕地固碳能力。

关键词: 耕地, 表层土壤, 有机碳密度, 有机碳储量, 耕地利用, 北京市

Abstract:

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an ecological factor as well a typical fertility factor. The study of distribution characteristics and influencing factors of SOC are of great significance for enhancing the cultivated land production capacity and soil carbon storage. Based on agricultural soil sampling data, land use map, digital elevation model (DEM), and cultivated land type distribution map in 2010 and using the zonal statistic function of ArcGIS 10.0 software, we analyzed the spatial distribution feature of SOC density and the influence of natural and human factors in Beijing. The results are as follows: (1) In 2010, the average SOC density of the cultivated land in Beijing was 22.51 t/hm 2 and the carbon storage was 990.34×10 4 t; (2) The SOC densities of cultivated land topsoil in the northwestern mountainous areas and suburban areas were higher than the other areas in Beijing. The average SOC density in the surface soil in Mentougou District was the highest among all the 16 districts, reaching 39.93 t/hm 2 ; (3) Topography, soil type, soil texture, and planting type had significant effects on SOC density, The organic carbon density of cultivated topsoil generally increased with altitude; The SOC density of brown soil and cinnamon soil is higher than the other soil types, and the SOC density of cultivated topsoil generally increased with the clay content; The cultivated SOC density of cash crops is slightly higher than that of grain crops; (4) The comprehensive analysis showed that the SOC density of spring maize was the highest in middle and low mountain areas, while the open-air vegetable and facility agriculture fields had the highest SOC densities in hills and plain areas. The adjustment of cultivated land use in Beijing should consider the influence of topography, soil condition, and human factors on the SOC content of cultivated land, and the carbon sequestration capacity of cultivated land should be improved or maintained according to local conditions.

Key words: cultivated land, topsoil, organic carbon density, organic carbon storage, cultivated land use, Beijing Municipality