资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (11): 2008-2019.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.11.05

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国能源水足迹时空特征及其与水资源匹配关系

关伟1,2, 赵湘宁1, 许淑婷2   

  1. 1. 辽宁师范大学海洋经济与可持续发展研究中心,大连 116029
    2. 辽宁师范大学地理科学学院,大连 116029
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-19 修回日期:2019-07-27 出版日期:2019-11-25 发布日期:2019-12-03
  • 作者简介:关伟,男,辽宁岫岩人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为区域经济与产业规划。E-mail:lsgw2000@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771132);辽宁省教育厅人文社会科学研究专项(H201783630);辽宁省社会科学规划基金项目(L18CJL002)

Spatiotemporal feature of the water footprint of energy and its relationship with water resources in China

GUAN Wei1,2, ZHAO Xiangning1, XU Shuting2   

  1. 1. Center for Studies of Marine Economy and Sustainable Development, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
    2. School of Geographical Sciences, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
  • Received:2019-03-19 Revised:2019-07-27 Online:2019-11-25 Published:2019-12-03

摘要:

能源与水资源对人类生存和社会发展至关重要,能源水足迹能够反映能源生产过程中真实的水资源占用情况。本文借助能源水足迹评价模型测算中国30个省(市、自治区)化石能源和电力生产生命周期水足迹,研究2004—2016年中国原煤、原油、天然气、水电、火电5类能源水足迹时间和空间格局演化特征,分析中国能源水足迹与水资源空间匹配关系。结果表明:①在研究期内,化石能源水足迹以2012年为界先增后减,水电水足迹快速增长助推电力水足迹持续增长。②在空间格局上,化石能源水足迹以胡焕庸线为界西向增加东向减少,以蒙晋陕地区为高值集聚区;而电力水足迹中水电水足迹与火电水足迹的空间分界显著,水电水足迹的快速增长使长江流域、珠江流域及东南沿海逐渐形成电力水足迹高值集聚区。③能源水足迹与水资源的空间匹配程度以南高北低格局呈波动下降趋势,化石能源水足迹较电力水足迹与水资源的空间匹配度低,原煤生产与火力发电的能-水矛盾最突出,全国1/3的地区存在能-水不匹配问题,能源水足迹高的华北地区能-水匹配压力大。能源生产与水资源配置上的矛盾仍然存在。真实反映能源水足迹与水资源的匹配关系,有助于优化能源与水资源综合管理,为最大限度的发挥能-水协同作用提供量化依据。

关键词: 能-水关联, 能源水足迹, 生命周期评价, 水资源, 空间匹配, 绿色发展

Abstract:

Energy and water resources are very important for human survival and social development. Energy and water footprint can reflect the real situation of water resources occupation in the process of energy production. With the help of the water footprint assessment model, this study measured and calculated the life cycle water footprint of fossil energy and electricity production in 30 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in China. It examined the spatiotemporal patterns of water footprint of raw coal, crude oil, natural gas, hydropower, and thermal power in China from 2004 to 2016, and analyzed the spatial matching relationship between water footprint and water resources. The results show that: During the study period, the water footprint of fossil energy production increased before 2012 and decreased thereafter, and the rapid growth of water footprint of hydropower contributed to the continuous growth of water footprint of power. Spatially the water footprint of fossil energy production increased west of the Aihui-Tengchong Line and decreased to its east, and there is a high-value cluster in the Inner Mongolia-Shanxi-Shaanxi area. With regard to the water footprint of power, there is a clear spatial division between hydropower and thermal power, and the rapid growth of the water footprint of hydropower makes the Yangtze River Basin, the Pearl River Basin, and southeastern coastal areas gradually form high value concentration areas of water footprint of power. The spatial matching degree of water footprint and water resources fluctuates downwards from the south to the north, and the matching degree of water footprint of fossil energy production is lower than that of the water footprint of power and water resources. The contradiction of energy-water between raw coal production and thermal power generation is most prominent. There is a problem of energy-water mismatch in one third areas of China, and the energy-water matching pressure in North China with high water footprint is large. The contradiction between energy production and water resource endowment still exists. Reflecting on the matching relationship between energy water footprint and water resources will help optimize the comprehensive management of energy and water resources and provide a quantitative basis for maximizing the synergy of energy and water.

Key words: energy-water nexus, water footprint of energy, life cycle assessment, water resources, spatial matching, green development