资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (10): 1769-1779.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.10.01

• 水资源 •    下一篇

中国农村灌溉治理影响因素

王亚华1,2,陶椰3,康静宁1   

  1. 1. 清华大学公共管理学院,北京 100084
    2. 清华大学中国农村研究院,北京 100084
    3. 谷歌信息技术(中国)有限公司,北京 100190
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-04 修回日期:2019-08-09 出版日期:2019-10-25 发布日期:2019-10-25
  • 作者简介:王亚华,男,河南周口人,博士,教授,主要从事中国国情与国家发展战略、公共事物治理与资源环境政策等的研究。E-mail: wangyahua@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71573151);国家社会科学基金专项(18VSJ021);国家社会科学基金重大项目(15ZDB164)

Influencing factors of irrigation governance in China’s rural areas

WANG Yahua1,2,TAO Ye3,KANG Jingning1   

  1. 1. School of Public Policy & Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
    2. China Institute for Rural Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    3. Google Information Technology (China) Co., Ltd., Beijing 100190, China
  • Received:2019-03-04 Revised:2019-08-09 Online:2019-10-25 Published:2019-10-25

摘要:

农村灌溉系统作为一项重要的公共事物,对于发展农村经济和保障粮食安全至关重要。在乡村公共治理危机和农田灌溉问题日益凸显的背景下,亟需对中国农村灌溉治理水平和影响因素进行深入探究。本文从效率、公平、参与3个维度对当前农村灌溉治理水平进行评价,并在社会生态系统(SES)框架下,运用21个省区的大样本数据探索灌溉治理的影响因素。研究表明,中国农村灌溉治理效率水平与公平水平较好,而参与水平欠佳;农村灌溉治理水平受到自然条件、地理区位、家庭条件、村民自治、社会资本、灌溉技术等多方面影响;用水户协会没有显著改善灌溉治理水平;相比政府主导的情形,以民主选举实现村民委员会换届的村庄往往具有更高的灌溉治理效率和参与水平。本文从农民参与、用水户协会、村民自治3个方面提出对策建议,旨在推动村庄灌溉治理走向“善治”,助力乡村振兴战略的实施。

关键词: 灌溉, 公共事物, 农村治理, 集体行动, 乡村振兴

Abstract:

As the essential commons, rural irrigation systems play an important role in developing the economy and ensuring food security. Under the background of the crisis of governing rural commons and the increasingly prominent problem of farmland irrigation, it is urgent to conduct an in-depth examination of the level and influencing factors of rural irrigation governance in China. This study first evaluates the current level of rural irrigation governance with regard to efficiency, fairness and participation. Second, under the analytical framework of social-ecological system (SES), the influential factors of irrigation governance are explored by using the survey data from 21 provinces. It is found that the efficiency and fairness levels of China’s rural irrigation governance are better but the participation level falls behind. The factors that affect rural irrigation governance include natural conditions, geographical location, family situation, self-governance of rural residents, social capital, irrigation technology and so on. Water user associations do not significantly improve irrigation governance level. Compared with the situation dominated by the government, the villages that change the term of villagers’ committee through democratic election usually have higher efficiency and participation level of irrigation governance. Finally, suggestions are put forward from three aspects including farmers’ participation, water user associations, and self-governance of rural residents, so as to promote rural irrigation towards good governance and the implementation of rural revitalization strategy.

Key words: irrigation, commons, rural governance, collective action, rural revitalization