资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (9): 1690-1702.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.10

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同地理环境下农户致贫机理的多尺度比较——以河南省为例

高军波1,喻超1,戈大专2(),陈建华1   

  1. 1. 信阳师范学院地理科学学院/精准扶贫与乡村振兴软科学研究基地,信阳 464000
    2. 南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-08 修回日期:2019-06-11 出版日期:2019-09-25 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 戈大专
  • 作者简介:高军波,男,河南信阳人,博士后,副教授,主要从事土地利用转型与乡村贫困研究。E-mail: gaojb@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41901204);教育部人文社科规划项目(18YJA840003);教育部人文社科规划项目(19YJCZH036);河南省哲学社科规划项目(2017BSH009);河南省教育厅社科应用研究重大项目(2020-YYZD-10)

Multiscale analysis of poverty creation for farming households in different geographical environments: A case study of Henan Province

GAO Junbo1,YU Chao1,GE Dazhuan2(),CHEN Jianhua1   

  1. 1. College of Geographic Sciences / The Center of Targeted Poverty Alleviation and Rural Revitalization, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, China
    2. College of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2019-03-08 Revised:2019-06-11 Online:2019-09-25 Published:2019-09-25
  • Contact: GE Dazhuan

摘要:

不同地理环境下农户致贫因素的多尺度探索,对揭示乡村贫困成因规律、提升减贫成效具有重要意义。本文基于分层线性模型和多维贫困数据,从户-村-县三级尺度研究了河南省及其平原、丘陵、山地3种地理环境下农户致贫因素的尺度差异及机理比较。结果表明:①河南省农户致贫因素存在显著的尺度差异特征,农户尺度总体上解释了82.0%的农户致贫方差变异,村和县尺度分别为10.6%和7.4%。平原、丘陵、山地地区农户尺度的致贫方差变异占比分别为85.4%、89.7%和74.7%,村域尺度分别为14.6%、10.3%和25.3%,表明不同地理环境下农户的主要致贫因素均聚集在农户尺度,村级尺度对农户致贫也有一定的作用,而县级尺度因素影响相对较小。②不同地理环境下的农户致贫因素显著不同。未成年抚养负担、种植业收入占比高和转移性收入依赖是贫困农户的主要致贫因素,其中平原地区的直接致贫因素是较高医疗支出及未成年人抚养负担,而种植业收入依赖是丘陵和山地地区的关键致贫因素。③县域地形地貌条件及涉农投资是农户致贫的宏观背景,传统农业种植收入依赖及较重的家庭负担是农户致贫的个体因素,村平均高程及人均耕地规模加剧了个体因素的致贫作用。区域减贫政策制定不但要强调县域尺度的区域差异性,更须重视农户及村域尺度的微观特征,发挥农户脱贫主体地位,完善农户需求导向的减贫政策体系,提升减贫政策实施成效。

关键词: 分层线性模型, 不同地理环境, 致贫机理, 多尺度效应, 乡村振兴, 贫困户, 河南省

Abstract:

Multiscale exploration of the poverty-inducing factors of farming households in different geographical environments is of great significance for revealing the causes of rural poverty and improving the effectiveness of poverty reduction. Based on the hierarchical linear model and multidimensional data on poverty, the differences of poverty-inducing factors of farming households in Henan Province and their mechanisms are comparatively studied. The spatial scales include household, village, and county, and the geographical environments cover plain region, hilly areas, and mountain land. The results show that: (1) There are significant differences in the poverty-inducing factors at various spatial scales. For Henan Province as a whole, 82.0% of the poverty variances can be explained at the household scale, while 10.6% and 7.4% can be explained at the village and county scales, respectively. The main poverty-inducing factors concentrate at the household scale under all geographical environment conditions. Factors at the village scale play a more important role in leading to poverty than at the county scale. (2) Poverty-inducing factors differ significantly in different geographical environments. Dependency burden with children, income dependence on planting, and dependence on transferable payments are the main poverty-inducing factors for poor farming households. The direct poverty-inducing factors in plain areas are high medical expenses and dependency burden with children. Income dependence on planting is the key poverty-inducing factor in hilly and mountainous areas. (3) The macro-background of farming households’ poverty is the geographical and geomorphological conditions and agriculture-related investments at the county scale. Income dependence on traditional agriculture and heavier family burden are individual factors for poverty. The average elevation of villages and the amount of per capita arable land have aggravated the effect of individual factors. (4) Regional poverty reduction policies should not only emphasize the regional differences at the county level, but also pay attention to the characteristics of households and villages. The dominant position of farmers in overcoming poverty should be supported, and the demand-oriented policy system of poverty reduction and implementation need to be improved.

Key words: hierarchical linear model, geographical environment, mechanism of poverty, multiscale effects, rural revitalization, poverty-stricken farming households, Henan Province