资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (9): 1675-1689.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.09

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

转入土地连片程度对生产效率的影响

李博伟1,2   

  1. 1. 浙江农林大学经济管理学院,杭州 311300
    2. 浙江省重点培育智库——浙江农林大学浙江省乡村振兴研究院,杭州 311300
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-24 修回日期:2019-07-23 出版日期:2019-09-25 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 作者简介:李博伟,男,讲师,博士,主要从事农业经济管理方面的研究。E-mail:1052195380@qq.com.
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71773116);国家自然科学基金项目(71873004);浙江农林大学科研发展基金人才启动项目(2018FR050)

Impact of centralization degree of transfer-in land on production efficiency

LI Bowei1,2   

  1. 1. College of Economics and Management, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China
    2. Zhejiang Province Key Cultivating Think Tank: Research Academy for Rural Revitalization of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China
  • Received:2018-12-24 Revised:2019-07-23 Online:2019-09-25 Published:2019-09-25

摘要:

农村市场机制不完善使得集中连片的土地流转难以达成,厘清转入土地连片程度对生产效率的影响机制有利于农业适度规模经营的健康发展。本文分别从成本上升和雇工需求增加的视角分析转入土地不连片对生产效率的直接和间接影响,并将安徽省种粮大户的调查数据代入联立方程模型中进行实证检验。主要结果有:①基于土地单产的随机前沿生产函数模型测得的农户资本和劳动的产出弹性分别为0.5246和0.0405,农户的平均技术效率为0.75。②转入地片平均规模对技术效率影响的总效应是0.1132,其中直接效应是0.0827;减少雇工对技术效率的间接影响效应是0.0305,直接效应占总效应的73.06%。③以转入地片数作为解释变量进行稳健性检验的结果显示,转入地片数影响技术效率的总效应为-0.3032,其中直接效应为-0.2692,通过增加雇工对技术效率影响的间接效应为-0.0340,直接效应占总效应的88.79%。分析上述结果得出的主要结论有:①在现阶段农地规模经营中,资本是比劳动更加稀缺的要素,农户总体处于规模报酬递减的阶段,且存在比较严重的技术效率损失。②集中连片地转入土地在直接促进技术效率提升的同时,通过减少雇工数量间接促进技术效率提升;相反,转入土地不连片导致技术效率损失,既包括由于生产成本上升导致的直接效率损失,也包括由于增加雇工引发劳动质量下降、道德风险以及监督成本上升导致的间接效率损失,相比之下,直接效应在总效应中占据主导地位。本文的研究明确了进一步提升农业适度规模经营生产效率的关键在于通过完善土地流转市场促成集中连片的土地流转。

关键词: 土地流转, 连片程度, 生产效率, 直接效应, 间接效应, 种粮大户, 安徽

Abstract:

The imperfection of rural land market mechanism makes it difficult to achieve centralized land transfer. Clarifing the influence of transfer-in land’s centralization degree on production efficiency is beneficial to the healthy development of agriculture operation at moderate scales. This study analyzed the direct and indirect effects of transfer-in land dispersion on production efficiency and used the survey data of large grain farmers in Anhui Province in a simultaneous equation model to perform an empirical test. The main results include: (1) The output elasticity of capital and labor of farmers is 0.5246 and 0.0405 measured by a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model based on the yield of unit land area, and average technical efficiency of the farmers is 0.75. (2) The total effect of average size of transfer-in land on technical efficiency is 0.1132, in which the direct effect is 0.0827, the indirect effect on technical efficiency caused by reducing the number of employees is 0.0305, and the direct effect accounts for 73.06% of the total effect. (3) The result of robustness test with the number of transfer-in land parcels as an independent variable shows that the total effect of the number of transfer-in land parcels on technical efficiency is -0.3032, in which the direct effect is -0.2692, the indirect effect on technical efficiency caused by rising number of employees is -0.0340, and the direct effect accounts for 88.79% of the total effect. The main conclusions are: (1) With the present scale of farmland management capital is a more scarce factor than labor, farmers are generally experiencing diminishing returns to scale, and there is a relatively serious loss of technical efficiency. (2) Centralization of transfer-in land is conducive to improving technical efficiency, indirectly promoting technical efficiency by reducing the number of employees at the same time. On the contrary, dispersion of transfer-in land parcels leads to the loss of technical efficiency, including not only the direct loss of efficiency caused by the increase of production costs, but also the indirect loss of efficiency caused by the decrease of labor quality, moral hazard, and the rise of supervision costs caused by the increased number of employees, and comparatively the direct effect is greater than the indirect effect. This article clarifies that the key to further enhance the production efficiency of agriculture operation at moderate scales lies in promoting the centralized land transfer through improving the land transfer market.

Key words: land transfer, centralization degree, production efficiency, direct effect, indirect effect, large grain farmers, Anhui