资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (9): 1610-1618.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.09.03

• 国土空间规划专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

均衡紧凑网络型国土空间规划——日本的实践及其启示

李国平   

  1. 北京大学政府管理学院,北京大学首都发展研究院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-10 修回日期:2019-09-18 出版日期:2019-09-25 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 作者简介:李国平,男,黑龙江拜泉人,教授,博导,主要从事经济地理、区域经济、城市与区域规划研究。E-mail:lgp@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671120)

Balanced, compact and networked national land spatial planning:Japan’s practice and implications

LI Guoping   

  1. School of Government, Beijing Development Institute, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2019-09-10 Revised:2019-09-18 Online:2019-09-25 Published:2019-09-25

摘要:

日本自1950年颁布了《国土综合开发法》以及其后在1962年发布了《全国综合开发计划》以来,在近70年间,编制和实施了多个规划,形成了比较完善的国土空间规划体系。为应对新的不断变化的内外部环境和国土空间出现的新问题,日本于2005年改《国土综合开发法》为《国土形成计划法》,一改过去数量扩张的“开发”,转向存量提质的“利用”,先后编制并发布了2次《国土形成计划(全国计划)》,致力于建设均衡、紧凑和网络型的国土空间。未来10~20年,中国人口也将进入减少状态和超老龄化社会,国土空间规划与开发利用必将与其相适应。借鉴日本在国土空间规划和国土空间营造方面的实践,研究认为中国国土空间规划和国土空间营造应该有新理念和新变革,应该从大规模国土空间开发向国土保护转型,从数量扩张型向存量优化和减量提升的国土空间规划转型,从增量规划到存量规划再到减量规划的转型;应着力形成多重“紧凑型+网络型”的国土空间结构,打造均衡、安全、安心的可持续国土空间。

关键词: 国土空间规划, 可持续国土空间, 均衡发展, 紧凑+网络型, 日本

Abstract:

Since the promulgation of the “Comprehensive National Land Development Act” in 1950 and the subsequent release of the “Comprehensive National Development Plan” in 1962, Japan has made and implemented a number of national land development plans in the past 70 years, and formed a comprehensive national land development and spatial planning system. In response to the new and constantly changing internal and external environments and the emergence of new challenges in the national land development, Japan changed the “Comprehensive National Land Development Act” to the “National Spatial Planning Act” in 2005, which emphasized the use of the stock of national land and improving the quality and efficiency of land development instead of quantitative expansion. Thereafter, the new “National Spatial Strategy (National Plan)” has been updated twice, which was dedicated to creating a balanced, compact, and networked national land use pattern. In the next 10 to 20 years, China’s population will decrease and the country will enter the super-aging society. The planning and development of national land will inevitably be adapted to the new situation. Based on the review of Japan’s practice in the national land development and spatial planning, this study proposes new strategies for China’s national land development in the new era, which emphasize the transformation from large scale national land development to national land preservation, and national spatial planning should be transformed from the traditional incremental planning approach to the stock planning then to the reduction planning approach, focusing on the optimal utilization of the stock of land and the improvement of the quality and efficiency of land development instead of quantitative expansion. Meanwhile, efforts should be made to construct the multiple-scale compact and networked national land spatial structure, and create a balanced, secure, and sustainable national land use pattern.

Key words: national land spatial planning, sustainable national land use, balanced development, compact and networked development, Japan