资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (8): 1400-1415.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.08.02

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

环渤海地区滴灌的资源与经济效应——政府与农户目标一致性检验

张哲晰1,2,穆月英1(),侯玲玲3,杨鑫1   

  1. 1.中国农业大学经济管理学院,北京 100083
    2.农业农村部农村经济研究中心,北京 100810
    3.北京大学现代农学院,北京大学中国农业政策研究中心,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-28 修回日期:2019-05-18 出版日期:2019-08-28 发布日期:2019-08-21
  • 通讯作者: 穆月英
  • 作者简介:张哲晰,女,吉林省吉林市人,博士,研究方向为农业经济理论与政策。E-mail: cauzzx1991@cau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(18ZDA074)

Resource and economic effects of drip irrigation in the Bohai Rim area: Consistency of goals of the government and farmers

Zhexi ZHANG1,2,Yueying MU1(),Lingling HOU3,Xin YANG1   

  1. 1.College of Economies and Management of China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
    2.Research Center for Rural Economy, Beijing 100810, China
    3.School of Advanced Agricultural Sciences of Peking University, China Center for Agricultural Policy, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2018-05-28 Revised:2019-05-18 Online:2019-08-28 Published:2019-08-21
  • Contact: Yueying MU

摘要:

水资源是关系农村社会经济发展、农民增收的重要因素。本文从协调政府与农民关于增效与增收的目标出发,以2017年中国环渤海设施蔬菜主产地蔬菜专业村357个蔬菜种植户调研数据为例,运用联立方程组模型及条件混合过程(CMP)、倾向得分匹配方法(PSM)与工具变量分位数(IVQR)方法,对滴灌技术推广的约束因素与增效增收能力进行分析,探索促进中国农业可持续发展的路径。研究结果表明:①水资源稀缺程度较高的蔬菜主产地,种植年限较短,但家庭资本充裕且对节水知识了解程度越高的蔬菜种植户更倾向于采用滴灌技术;②滴灌技术具有明显的增效增收作用,蔬菜种植户采用滴灌技术后,每吨灌溉水产出可增加17.16 kg蔬菜,增收45.90 元,具有推广的长效动力;③滴灌技术的产出与经济效应存在“马太效应”,对于生产条件好的农户而言,滴灌技术的产出与经济效应更加明显;④技术供给层面的灌溉制度设计不健全、设备工程设计与质量较差、培训与售后服务不足,农户技术应用层面的专业知识与技术缺乏、与现代农业对接能力弱,以及政府层面的补贴不够科学、到位是影响农户滴灌技术采用积极性的重要因素,需要加以注意,此外,灌溉水价的适当提高,将有助于加快田间节水技术的推广。

关键词: 蔬菜, 主产地, 滴灌, 资源效应, 经济效应, CMP, IVQR, 环渤海地区

Abstract:

Water resources are an important factor that affects rural social and economic development and farmers’ income. This study starts from the goal of coordinating the government and farmers on efficiency and income,based on the survey data of 357 vegetable growers of the main vegetable production area in the Bohai Rim in 2017, applied the simultaneous equations model (SEM), conditional mixture process (CMP), propensity score matching (PSM), and instrumental variable quantile regression (IVQR) to investigate the efficiency and income increase ability of drip irrigation technology and the constraints of promotion effect at the micro level, to explore the path to promote sustainable development of China’s agriculture. The results show that: (1) In the main production areas facing severe water scarcity, households with fewer years of planting, abundant capital, and higher level of knowledge on water saving tend to adopt drip irrigation technology; (2) Drip irrigation technology has significant effects on increasing production efficiency and income. The output of unit irrigation water and income on average increase by 17.16 kg/t of vegetables and 45.90 yuan/t for farmers who adopt the drip irrigation technology, which provides long-term incentives for its broader adoption; (3) The output and economic effects of drip irrigation technology have a “Matthew effect,” which means that farmers with better production conditions benefit more from the technology; (4) Imperfect design of irrigation system, poor design and quality of equipment engineering, inadequate training and after-sales service, lack of professional knowledge and technology of farmers, weak ability to practice modern agriculture, and poorly designed subsidies of the government are important factors affecting the enthusiasm of farmers to adopt drip irrigation technology. Furthermore, proper increase of irrigation water price will help speed up the popularization of field water-saving technology.

Key words: vegetable, main production area, drip irrigation, resource effect, economic effect, CMP, IVQR, the Bohai Rim area