资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (7): 1339-1349.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.14

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

山区土地流转过程中的零租金现象及其解释——基于交易费用的视角

王亚辉1,2(), 李秀彬3(), 辛良杰3   

  1. 1. 西南大学地理科学学院,重庆 400715
    2. 西南山地生态循环农业国家级培育基地,重庆 400715
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-18 修回日期:2019-03-18 出版日期:2019-07-25 发布日期:2019-07-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王亚辉,男,安徽亳州人,讲师,博士,主要从事土地利用变化与土地经济方面的研究。E-mail: wangyahui1210@163.com.

  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(19XJCZH006);博士启动基金项目(swu118054);重庆市社会科学规划项目(2018BS59)

Rent-free land transfer in mountainous areas and its explanation

Yahui WANG1,2(), Xiubin LI3(), Liangjie XIN3   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    2. State Cultivation Base of Eco-Agriculture for Southwest Mountainous Land, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-01-18 Revised:2019-03-18 Online:2019-07-25 Published:2019-07-25

摘要:

近年来山区土地流转过程中的零租金现象较为普遍,厘清土地零租金流转的规模及其原因对于提高农村土地流转市场的运行效率具有重要价值。在理论解释的基础上,本文基于重庆市永川区、忠县和酉阳县的农户调查数据,从地块尺度测算了土地零租金流转的规模,并构建Logit模型实证检验了交易费用对土地零租金流转的影响。研究表明:案例区零租金转出地块的比例达到78.62%,其中75.47%的地块转给了亲人或熟人;实证模拟显示,事前、事中和事后3类交易费用的存在是土地零租金流转的重要原因,低成本的流转中介组织、第三方协调机构的存在以及签订规范的书面合同均能显著降低土地零租金流转的概率;规模偏小、质量等级较低、灌溉条件较差和地理位置偏远的劣质地块的零租金流转概率普遍较高。目前,山区土地边际化导致的地租下降是零租金现象的根源,而交易费用偏高则是土地零租金流转的重要原因之一。为此,今后应着重降低山区土地流转中面临的各类交易费用,建立以乡镇为网络节点的低成本流转平台,引导双方签订规范的书面合同。同时,还应关注山区耕地撂荒和农户耕地资产贬值等现象。

关键词: 土地零租金流转, 交易费用, 土地撂荒, 山区, Logit模型, 土地边际化

Abstract:

In recent years, rent-free land transfer in mountainous areas is increasingly prominent. Clarifying the extent of land transfer without rent in rural China and its explanation is of great value for the development of land rental market. On the basis of theoretical inference, the extent of rent-free land transfer was estimated at the land parcel scale and the Logit model was developed to empirically evaluate the impact of transaction costs on such transfer based on the survey data of farming households from Yongchuan District, Zhongxian County, and Youyang County of Chongqing Municipality. The results show that the proportion of the land parcels transferred at zero rent in the case study areas reached 78.62%, among which 75.47% of the land parcels were transferred to relatives or acquaintances. The empirical modeling results show that the existence of three types of transaction costs significantly increased the probability of rent-free land transfer. Low-cost brokerage, third-party coordination organizations, and signing of standardized written contracts in the process of land circulation can significantly reduce the probability of rent-free land transfer. The decline in rent caused by the marginalization of mountainous land is the root cause of rent-free land transfer, and high transaction cost is one of the important reasons for this type of transfer. The policy implication is that the reform of land system should focus on reducing all kinds of transaction costs faced by land transfer in mountainous areas. Low-cost transfer platforms as nodes at the county or township level should be established and guide the parties to sign standardized written contracts. In addition, the government should pay attention to the abandonment of cultivated land in mountainous areas and the depreciation of farmers’ cultivated land assets.

Key words: rent-free land transfer, transaction cost, land abandonment, mountainous areas, Logit model, land marginalization