资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (7): 1240-1249.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.07.05

• 资源与环境经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

土地经营规模对化肥使用效率的影响——以江苏省为例

邹伟(), 张晓媛   

  1. 南京农业大学公共管理学院,南京 210095
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-02 修回日期:2019-04-02 出版日期:2019-07-25 发布日期:2019-07-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:邹伟,男,四川渠县人,教授,博导,主要从事土地经济与政策研究。E-mail:njauzw@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重点项目(18AGL014);全国党校系统重点调研课题项目

Effects of land management scale on fertilizer use efficiency: Taking Jiangsu as an example

Wei ZOU(), Xiaoyuan ZHANG   

  1. College of Public Administration, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
  • Received:2019-01-02 Revised:2019-04-02 Online:2019-07-25 Published:2019-07-25

摘要:

适度规模经营是现代农业发展的必然趋势,研究经营规模对化肥使用效率的影响,并回答适度规模经营主体能否提升化肥使用效率、实现化肥零增长目标,对促进农业可持续发展具有重要的意义。本文依据江苏省微观农户调查数据,在运用随机前沿生产函数测算水稻种植户的化肥使用效率及各项要素产出弹性的基础上,利用Tobit模型进一步对化肥使用效率的影响因素进行分析,并探讨高效利用化肥的对策。研究发现:江苏地区化肥使用效率平均值仅有0.53,大约有47%的化肥在使用过程中没有被作物有效吸收;土地经营规模对化肥使用效率的影响具有显著差异性,规模扩张前经营面积较大的农户在转入土地后,化肥使用效率提高,而规模扩张前小规模农户在转入土地后,化肥使用效率降低,化肥浪费现象严重。由此可见,江苏省化肥使用效率总体偏低,但在一定的条件下扩大经营规模有助于提高化肥使用效率。基于以上分析的政策启示为:应促进分工经济下农户化肥施用成本降低,引导小规模农户主动吸纳施肥环节的外包服务,从而减少“一次多量”的施肥倾向;加强精准施肥技术推广,降低农户“非意愿性”过度施肥;充分发挥规模经济效应,进一步推进适度规模经营。

关键词: 经营规模, 转入土地, 化肥使用效率, 随机前沿生产函数, 江苏省

Abstract:

Moderate management scale is an inexorable trend of modern agriculture development. Examining the effect of management scale on fertilizer use efficiency and whether moderate management scale can improve fertilizer use efficiency and realize zero growth of fertilizer application is of great significance for promoting sustainable development. Based on farm-level data collected from Jiangsu Province and a stochastic production frontier model, this study estimated the fertilizer use efficiency and the elasticities of land, fertilizer, and labor with respect to output. Furthermore, this study adopted the Tobit model to estimate the main factors influencing fertilizer use efficiency. The empirical results show that the average fertilizer use efficiency was 0.53 in Jiangsu, implying that about 47% fertilizer was not effectively absorbed by crops. Farm size has significantly different impacts on fertilizer use efficiency, expansion of large-scale farms would increase fertilizer use efficiency, whereas expansion of small-scale farms would decrease fertilizer use efficiency, which would result in a serious waste of fertilizer. In general, the fertilizer use efficiency of Jiangsu Province is generally low, but expanding the scale of operation will help to improve the fertilizer use efficiency under certain conditions. Based on these results, we conclude that it is necessary to promote the reduction of farmers’ fertilizer use costs through the economy of scale and division of labor, guide small-scale farmers to outsource services in the fertilization process, thus reducing the once for all and over-fertilization tendency; promote precision fertilization technology by local governments to reduce the unintended excessive fertilization of farmers; and make full use of the scale of economy effects and further promote appropriate scale management.

Key words: farm size, transfer-in land, fertilizer use efficiency, stochastic frontier production functions, Jiangsu Province