资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (6): 1176-1187.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.06.16

• 气候资源 • 上一篇    

河南小麦-玉米轮作系统热量利用率时空分布

常清1,2(), 王靖1(), 余卫东3, 张宁4, 李孟蔚5, 李文科6, 黄明霞1   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京 100193
    2. 山西省气象服务中心,太原 030002
    3. 中国气象局/河南省农业气象保障与应用技术重点实验室,郑州 450003
    4. 山西省气象信息中心,太原 030002
    5. 山西省气候中心,太原 030002
    6. 山东省气象服务中心,济南 250000
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-04 修回日期:2018-11-17 出版日期:2019-06-25 发布日期:2019-06-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:常清,女,山西人,助理工程师,主要研究领域为专业气象服务。E-mail: changqing707448911@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0300105,2017YFD0300404)

Spatiotemporal variation and potential of heat use efficiency of wheat-maize rotation system in Henan Province

Qing CHANG1,2(), Jing WANG1(), Weidong YU3, Ning ZHANG4, Mengwei LI5, Wenke LI6, Mingxia HUANG1   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    2. Shanxi Meteorological Service Center, Taiyuan 030002, China
    3. China Meteorological Administrator/Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Agrometeorological Safeguard and Applied Technique, Zhengzhou 450003, China
    4. Shanxi Meteorological Information Center, Taiyuan 030002, China
    5. Shanxi Climate Center, Taiyuan 030002, China
    6. Shandong Provincial Meteorological Service Center, Jinan 253700, China
  • Received:2018-08-04 Revised:2018-11-17 Online:2019-06-25 Published:2019-06-25

摘要:

为研究河南省小麦、玉米及其轮作系统热量利用率的时空变化规律,因地制宜地提出挖掘河南省不同区域热量潜力和提升热量利用率的有效措施,本文利用河南省17个农业气象观测站1981—2014年的气象资料及小麦和玉米的生长发育资料,统计分析了河南省不同区域小麦、玉米及小麦-玉米轮作系统的热量分布及其利用率的时空变化特征,剖析了其区域差异及形成原因。结果表明:1981—2014年,不同年代小麦-玉米轮作系统生育期在豫北略增加、在豫东呈增—减—增变化特征、在豫西缩短、在豫南则先减后增;河南省各区域小麦和玉米生育期所需有效积温均呈增加趋势,是各区域适应气候变化、提高热量利用率而选用中晚熟品种的结果;小麦和玉米潜在与实际有效积温差南高北低,且小麦有效积温差升高,玉米有效积温差降低,表明玉米热量利用程度高于小麦热量利用程度;在小麦和玉米潜在与实际有效积温的共同变化下,小麦-玉米轮作系统有效积温差在豫南和豫东大部较高,而热量利用率北高南低,东高西低,但均呈升高趋势,表明河南大部分地区小麦-玉米轮作系统热量利用率有明显提升,但在豫南和豫东仍存在较大的提升潜力,今后应着重提高该区的热量利用率。

关键词: 热量利用率, 生育期, 小麦-玉米轮作系统, 潜在有效积温, 实际有效积温, 河南省

Abstract:

To explore the spatial and temporal changes of heat use efficiency (HUE) of wheat, maize, and wheat-maize rotation system and put forward effective measures for fully utilizing regional heat potential and improving HUE based on local production condition in Henan Province, the spatial and temporal characteristics of heat resources and HUE of wheat, maize, and wheat-maize rotation system were examined based on crop yield from the agro-meteorological observational sites and temperature data from meteorological stations respectively from 1981 to 2014 at 17 study sites in the province. The regional differences and the controlling factors of HUE were further revealed based on the statistical analysis results. The study showed that there were large spatial differences in calculated potential effective thermal time, actual effective thermal time, and heat use efficiency of wheat, maize, and wheat-maize rotation system. In 1981 to 2014, the length of growing period of wheat-maize rotation system increased slightly in Northern Henan while decreased in Western Henan. For Eastern and Southern Henan, the length of growing period of wheat-maize rotation system showed a trend of increase-decrease-increase and increased firstly and then decreased, respectively. With the selection of mid-late maturing varieties to adapt to climate change and improve HUE, growing period effective thermal time of wheat and maize increased in all the regions in Henan Province. The gap between potential and actual effective thermal times of wheat and maize increased from the north to the south and from the west to the east in the province. The gap between potential and actual effective thermal times increased for wheat but decreased for maize, which suggests that maize had higher heat use degree than wheat. Under the interactive impacts of crop yield and actual effective thermal time, heat use efficiency of wheat, maize, and wheat-maize rotation system was higher in the north and east of Henan than in the south and west of the province. From 1981 to 2014, potential and actual effective thermal times and heat use efficiency showed increasing trends with different increase rates caused by changes in growing period temperature, the length of crop growth period, and crop yield. In the future, there is an urgent need to improve the utilization of heat use efficiency especially in the Southern and Eastern Henan.

Key words: heat use efficiency, growth period, wheat-maize rotation system, potential effective thermal time, actual effective thermal time, Henan Province