资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (6): 1167-1175.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.06.15

• 气候资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄渤海海冰分布特征及其影响因子

刘成1(), 车达升2(), 李晓东2   

  1. 1. 中国人民解放军91913部队,大连 116041
    2. 中国人民解放军91550部队,大连 116023
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-08 修回日期:2019-01-25 出版日期:2019-06-25 发布日期:2019-06-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘成,男,山东德州人,硕士,高级工程师,主要研究方向为水文气象保障。E-mail: lc5097@163.com

Sea ice distribution and influencing factors in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea during winter 2018

Cheng LIU1(), Dasheng CHE2(), Xiaodong LI2   

  1. 1. Troop No. 91913 of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Dalian 116041, China
    2. Troop No. 91550 of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Dalian 116023, China
  • Received:2018-08-08 Revised:2019-01-25 Online:2019-06-25 Published:2019-06-25

摘要:

海冰是中国黄渤海冬季主要海洋灾害之一。为进一步认识黄渤海海冰分布特征和日变化机理,提高海冰短期预报水平,本文利用美国国家冰雪数据中心(NSIDC)MASIE海冰范围产品和欧洲中期天气预报中心(ECMWF)ERA-interim再分析资料,统计了2018年冬季黄渤海海冰时空分布特征,并通过相关性分析,研究了日海冰面积与海洋气象因子的关系。结果表明:2018年冬季黄渤海海冰集中在辽东湾和朝鲜湾,海冰覆盖率随离岸距离的增加而降低;海冰变化经历了生成、维持和融化3个阶段,其中生成阶段明显长于融化阶段。39°N以北黄渤海日均海表温度(SST)、海面2 m气温(T2m)、海面2 m气温<-2℃积温(Tc)和海冰面积呈显著负相关关系,Pearson相关系数分别为-0.61(P<0.01)、-0.52(P<0.01)和-0.50(P<0.01)。因此,39°N以北黄渤海海气界面的热力环境是影响黄渤海海冰面积的重要因素。另外研究发现在2018年黄渤海海冰生成发展阶段,海冰面积共出现两次异常减少,这两次日海冰面积异常减少主要是由海区前一日升温和偏南风造成的。

关键词: MASIE海冰产品, 时空分布, 海洋气象因子, 相关分析, 黄渤海

Abstract:

Sea ice is a marine hazard in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in winters. To reveal the spatial distribution and diurnal change characteristics of sea ice and improve the ability of sea ice short-term forecasting, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent (MASIE) daily sea ice extent and the European Centre for medium-range weather forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim data were used in this study for analysis. The spatial distribution characteristics of sea ice in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in 2018 and the relationship between sea ice extent and meteorological factors were examined. The results show that the sea ice was concentrated in the Liaodong Bay and the Korea Bay north of 39°N. With the increase of distance from the coast, its coverage reduced distinctly. Sea ice changes underwent three stages development, stagnation, and melting, and the development stage was longer than the melting stage. Sea surface temperature (SST), air temperature at 2 m height (T2m), and accumulated temperature (while air temperature at 2 m height was colder than -2℃) north of 39°N showed a significant negative correlation with sea ice extent, and the Pearson correlation coefficients were -0.61 (P < 0.01), -0.52 (P < 0.01), and -0.50 (P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, two abnormal decreasing processes of sea ice extent were found in the development stage over the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and both were mainly caused by the southerly wind and warming of the previous day.

Key words: Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent (MASIE) data, temporal and spatial distribution, marine and meteorological factors, correlation analysis, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea