资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (6): 1093-1101.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.06.08

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原设施农业分布格局及变化

魏慧1,2(), 吕昌河1,2(), 刘亚群1,2, 杨凯杰3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 福建农林大学林学院,福州 350002
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-19 修回日期:2019-01-13 出版日期:2019-06-25 发布日期:2019-06-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:魏慧,女,山东潍坊人,博士生,主要从事土地利用相关研究。E-mail: irene1993weihui@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)“丝路环境”子课题“青藏高原农业发展与水土资源高效利用(XDA20040301)”

Spatial distribution and temporal changes of facility agriculture on the Tibetan Plateau

Hui WEI1,2(), Changhe LV1,2(), Yaqun LIU1,2, Kaijie YANG3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Forestry College, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
  • Received:2018-12-19 Revised:2019-01-13 Online:2019-06-25 Published:2019-06-25

摘要:

设施农业的快速增长是近10年来青藏高原农业发展的一个突出亮点。揭示设施农业用地的空间分布和变化特征,有助于理解青藏高原设施农业的发展态势,为其规划布局提供决策支持。本文基于2018年Google Earth高分影像数据,采用目视解译和地统计学分析相结合的方法,获取了青藏高原设施农业用地的空间分布格局;并选择西宁和拉萨为典型区,对比2008年和2018年设施农业用地的时空变化特征。结果表明:①2018年青藏高原共有设施农业面积7821.74 hm2,主要集中在河流两侧的城市周边,与河流走向大致吻合,其中青海和西藏设施农业面积分别占青藏高原设施农业总面积的58.10%和36.49%;②受海拔、地貌类型和城市分布的影响,设施农业分布海拔在1400~4600 m之间,但在2200~2600 m和3600~3900 m高程区间分布最为集中;③2008—2018年西宁和拉萨设施农业增长迅速,分别从293.73 hm2和429.01 hm2增至2111.45 hm2和1422.30 hm2。同时,因城市发展,两个城市超过60%的设施农业用地被建设占用,造成空间格局的显著变化;④设施农业在青藏高原发展前景良好,但也存在温室类型单一、变动频繁和“过程性浪费”等问题,应加强保护和规划管理,促进设施农业的良性发展。

关键词: 设施农业, 空间分异, 时空变化, 高分影像, 青藏高原

Abstract:

During the past decade, the rapid growth of facility agriculture has been a new highlight of agricultural development in the Tibetan Plateau. Revealing the spatial distribution and change characteristics of facility agriculture is helpful for understanding its development trend and can provide supports for its planning and spatial layout on the plateau. Based on the high-resolution imagery data of Google Earth in 2018, this study obtained and revealed the spatial distribution of facility agriculture on the plateau by visual interpretation combined with geostatistical analysis. Further, the spatiotemporal changes of facility agriculture in Xining and Lhasa Cities were analyzed based on high-resolution images of 2008 and 2018. The results show that: (1) In 2018, the total area of facility agriculture on the Tibetan Plateau was 7821.74 hm2, mainly distributed at the periphery of cities in river basins, roughly in line with the rivers. Of the total facility agriculture lands, 58.10% was distributed in Qinghai Province and 36.49% in Tibet Autonomous Region; (2) Facility agriculture showed a significant altitudinal differentiation under the influence of topographic factors. The land was distributed between 1400 m and 4600 m, mostly concentrated in two elevation zones of 2200~2600 m and 3600~3700 m; (3) Facility agriculture grew rapidly in Xining and Lhasa Cities from 2008 to 2018, with the area increased from 293.73 hm2 and 429.01 hm2 to 2111.45 hm2 and 1422.30 hm2, respectively. At the same time, more than 60% of facility agriculture lands in the urban areas was occupied by built-up land, resulting in significant changes in the spatial pattern; (4) There is a good prospect for the development of facility agriculture in the region because of strongly anticipated growing demands for vegetables and melons driven by the rapid urbanization and tourism development. To that end, a general planning for facility agricultural development is needed in order to avoid the lands being frequently changed and resulting in wasteful use, improve the situation of highly depending on single type of greenhouses, and avoid possible ecological problems such as plastic pollution.

Key words: facility agriculture, spatial distribution, spatiotemporal changes, high-resolution image, Tibetan Plateau