资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (6): 1035-1047.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.06.03

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于“点-面”特征的农村居民点空间形态识别

曲衍波1(), 魏淑文1, 商冉2(), 郑捷1   

  1. 1. 山东财经大学公共管理学院,济南 250014
    2. 山东农业工程学院环境科学与工程学院,济南 250100
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-25 修回日期:2019-05-10 出版日期:2019-06-25 发布日期:2019-06-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:曲衍波,男,山东龙口人,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,从事土地利用与乡村发展研究。E-mail: yanboqu2009@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771560,41671519;41301616)

Spatial morphology of rural settlements based on site and functional characteristics

Yanbo QU1(), Shuwen WEI1, Ran SHANG2(), Jie ZHENG1   

  1. 1. School of Public Management, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, Jinan 250014, China
    2. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong Agriculture and Engineering University, Jinan 250100, China
  • Received:2018-10-25 Revised:2019-05-10 Online:2019-06-25 Published:2019-06-25

摘要:

城乡转型发展进程中的农村居民点用地调整应加强对其空间形态的系统认识与分类研究。本文从“点”-“面”耦合的角度构建农村居民点空间形态概念模型,基于“2+3”式抽样法选取山东省不同区域的5个典型乡镇及其内部的15个典型村庄作为研究对象,分别应用“点”属性的规模、形状和密度指标划分农村居民点类型,利用“面”属性的生产、生活和生态指标剖析农村居民点功能,进而通过对比分析揭示农村居民点“点-面”形态耦合特征。研究发现:①在“点状”形态上,典型乡镇的农村居民点规模差异较大,密度相对集聚,形状偏于不规则;经济落后地区和山区的农村居民点组合类型比较单一,经济发达和平原地区的农村居民点组合类型多样。②在“面状”形态上,农村居民点整体表现为“生产功能较好,生活功能差,生态功能一般”的特征;随着镇域内区位优势的衰减,典型村庄的生产功能逐渐降低并趋于均衡化,生活功能逐渐降低但分化程度更加剧烈,生态功能也逐渐降低但缩减幅度相对均衡。③在“点-面”形态耦合上,大规模-集聚型农村居民点的生活和生态功能偏强,小规模-分散型农村居民点的生活功能稍强,大规模-分散-不规则型农村居民点各项功能均较弱,这种组合类型和功能关系之间的关联性是外部性要素导向下农村居民点内部要素自组织演化的体现。

关键词: 农村居民点, 空间形态, 识别, 抽样, 山东省

Abstract:

Adjustment of rural residential land use in the process of urban-rural transformation and development should be based on the systematic understanding and classification of its spatial morphology. Based on the “2+3” sampling method to select five typical townships and 15 villages in different regions of Shandong Province as the research object, this study constructed a conceptual model of rural settlement morphology from the perspective of site and functional characteristics coupling. Rural settlements were divided by scale, shape, and density indicators of the “site” attribute, and system functions of rural settlements were analyzed based on production, living, and ecological indicators of the “functional” attribute. Then the site-function coupling characteristics of rural settlements were revealed through comparative analysis. The study found that: (1) The scale of rural settlements in the surveyed townships is quite different, the density is relatively concentrated, and the shape is irregular; the combination of rural settlement characteristics in economically backward and mountainous areas are relatively simple, and the types of rural settlements in economically developed and plain areas are diverse. (2) With regard to functions, the overall performance of the surveyed rural settlements is good in production function, poor in living function, and average in ecological function. With the attenuation of location advantage in the townships, the production function of the surveyed villages gradually reduces and tends to become average, the living function gradually reduces but the degree of differentiation becomes more severe, and the ecological function also gradually reduces but the reduction is relatively balanced. (3) With regard to site-function coupling, the living and ecological functions of “large scale-agglomerated” rural settlements are high, the “small scale-distributed” rural settlements have slightly stronger living functions, and the functions of “large scale-distributed-regular shaped” rural settlements are relatively weak. The correlation between combination type and functional relationship is a reflection of the self-organization of internal elements of rural settlements under the guidance of external factors.

Key words: rural settlements, spatial morphology, identification, sampling, Shandong Province