资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 775-789.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.14

• 水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国水资源安全风险评价

梁缘毅1, 吕爱锋2,3   

  1. 1. 中国矿业大学(北京)地球科学与测绘工程学院,北京 100083;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-23 修回日期:2018-12-12 发布日期:2019-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0401307); 中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA20010201)
  • 作者简介:梁缘毅,男,重庆市人,硕士生,主要从事水资源安全管理研究。E-mail: liangyuanyi0804@qq.com

Risk assessment of water resource security in China

LIANG Yuanyi1, LV Aifeng2,3   

  1. 1. College of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China;;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-11-23 Revised:2018-12-12 Published:2019-04-25

摘要: 水资源安全风险评价是对水资源进行风险管理的重要基础。本文以水资源安全内涵为基础,结合灾害系统论和风险理论,构建了水资源安全风险评价指标体系和水资源安全风险评价模型,并且采用主观AHP(层次分析法)和客观熵权法结合离差平方和最优组合赋权法进行确权,结合近年相关数据指标计算出各省级研究单元的水资源安全风险值,并根据自然断点法划分极高、高、中、低、极低5个风险等级,最后将极高风险、高风险、以及中等风险地区的水资源安全风险类型,划分为水量短缺风险、水质污染风险、干旱风险和洪涝风险。研究结果显示:水量短缺型风险主要分布在京津冀地区、辽宁、山东、河南、宁夏和甘肃地区;水质污染型风险有上海、辽宁、京津冀地区、江苏、吉林、山西、河南和广西地区;干旱型风险有黑龙江、陕西、甘肃、海南、新疆、内蒙和宁夏地区;洪涝型风险有广东和福建地区。针对不同风险类型提出相应的风险防控措施,从而为全国水资源安全管理提供科学有效的依据。

关键词: 水资源安全, 风险评价, 权重, 指标体系, 风险防控, 中国

Abstract: Water resource security risk assessment is an important foundation of water resource risk management. In this paper, based on the definition of water resource security, we combine disaster system theory and risk theory to construct the risk assessment index system of water resources security and the risk assessment model of water resource security. The subjective AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method and objective entropy weight method combined with the optimal combination of deviation square sum weighting method were proposed to determine the index comprehensive weight. And then, the risk level of water resource security of each province was calculated by coupling the above methods and combining with relevant data indexes which were obtained in China’s statistical yearbook, each provincial water resources bulletin and some water resources security research results in recent years. And extreme high risk level, high risk level, moderate risk level, low risk level and extreme low risk level of water resources security risk were calculated through the natural break classification method. Finally, the types of water resource security risks in each research unit with extreme high risk level, high risk level, and moderate risk level were calcounted based on hazard indicators. The water resources security risk statistical results show that the risk of water resources shortage is identified in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shandong, Henan, Ningxia, and Gansu provinces. Risk of water quality is found in Shanghai, Liaoning, Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Shanxi, Henan, and Guangxi provinces. Drought risks is characterized in Heilongjiang, Shanxi, Gansu, Hainan, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces. Flood risk is exhibited in Guangdong and Fujian provinces. Through different risk types of water resources security some risk preventive and controllable measures are proposed to manage China’s water resources security scientifically to remit and solve the water resources security risk level of each research unit.

Key words: water resource security, risk assessment, weight, assessment index system, risk prevention and control, China