资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 689-700.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.04.07

• 土地资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

农村居民点演化数据制备综述

李换换1,2, 宋伟1, 张艳2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101;
    2. 长安大学地球科学与资源学院,西安 710054
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-14 修回日期:2018-11-13 发布日期:2019-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 国家自然科学基金项目(41671177); 中国标准化研究院项目“标准起草专家数据库专题研究”; 地球观测与时空信息科学国家测绘地理信息局重点实验室经费项目(201807)
  • 作者简介:李换换,女,山西临汾人,硕士,主要研究方向为土地资源管理。E-mail: lihh_wyh@163.com

Review of data preparation for rural settlement evolution research

LI Huanhuan1,2, SONG Wei1, ZHANG Yan2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. School of Earth Science and Resource, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China;
  • Received:2018-06-14 Revised:2018-11-13 Published:2019-04-25

摘要: 精准、完备的农村居民点时空数据是开展农村居民点演化研究的重要数据基础。由于农村居民点规模相对较小、分布散乱的特征,高精度长时间序列的农村居民点数据制备一直是困扰农村居民点演化研究的一个难点。本文分别从长期、中期和短期时间跨度上,对农村居民点时空数据的获取来源、获取方法以及数据时空分辨率和精度进行了梳理和评述,分析了不同时间跨度上农村居民点数据获取方法的优缺点和适用性。结果表明:长期和中期时间跨度上农村居民点数据的获取主要依赖于对历史文献资料及历史地形图的收集和电子化处理,因此地域资料的缺失成为这两个时期数据制备的主要难点;而短期时间跨度内农村居民点数据制备主要依靠卫星遥感、航空遥感等现代技术手段,高精度农村居民点数据获取难度大、成本高是这一时期数据制备的主要难点。为此,今后的数据制备应注重历史学、考古学等学科间的融合,拓展居民点历史信息的来源;此外,尽可能利用Google Earth、高分二号等免费高精度遥感影像,耦合遥感解译、口述历史、实地调查和入户访问等多种手段,构建一套完备的农村居民点空间数据集,充分实现数据共享。

关键词: 农村居民点, 演化, 数据制备, 历史文献, 地形图, 遥感信息, 综述

Abstract: Accurate and complete spatial distribution data of rural settlements provide a critical support for studying the evolution of rural settlements. Since rural settlements are characterized by small-scale and scattered distribution, it is hard to acquire a long-term and high-resolution rural settlement dataset. Focusing on the development of rural settlement data preparation, this article reviews the sources, acquisition methods, spatiotemporal resolution, and accuracy of different rural settlement datasets for the long-term, medium-term, and short-term temporal spans, respectively. It also summarizes the applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of different data acquisition methods. The results show that for studies on a medium and a long term, historical documents and digitized topographic maps are the main sources for acquiring spatial distribution of rural settlements, and missing regional data is the main difficulty in creating such datasets. For short-term studies, spatial data acquired through modern technologies, such as satellite remote sensing and aerial remote sensing, can provide high-resolution data to delineate rural settlements. However, acquiring high-resolution imageries often becomes the primary difficulty in the process of data preparation owing to its high price and poor accessibility. In response to the above problems, we should pay attention to the integration of history, archaeology, and other disciplines, and expand the sources of historical information about rural settlements. We should also make full use of free high-resolution imageries, such as Google Earth and Gaofen-2, coupled with image interpretation, oral history, field surveys, and household visits in order to construct a complete picture of spatial distribution of rural settlements and fully achieve data sharing.

Key words: rural settlement, evolution, data preparation, historical data, topographic map, remote sensing data, review