资源科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (1): 63-74.doi: 10.18402/resci.2019.01.07

• 专栏:中国自然资源学会2018 年会论文集萃 • 上一篇    下一篇

典型脆弱生态区生态退化趋势与治理技术需求分析

甄霖1,2(), 胡云锋1,2, 魏云洁1,2, 罗琦1,2, 韩月琪1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-05 出版日期:2019-01-25 发布日期:2019-01-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介: 甄霖,女,甘肃天水人,博士,研究员,主要从事生态系统服务和生态补偿机制研究。E-mail: zhenl@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503700)

Trend of ecological degradation and restoration technology requirement in typical ecological vulnerable regions

Lin ZHEN1,2(), Yunfeng HU1,2, Yunjie WEI1,2, Qi LUO1,2, Yueqi HAN1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. School of Resource and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-12-05 Online:2019-01-25 Published:2019-01-25

摘要:

近百年来,全球典型脆弱生态区生态退化日趋严峻,针对这一问题,国内外在生态治理和修复方面做出了巨大努力,积累了数量众多的生态技术,对遏制和缓解生态退化起到了关键性的作用。然而,生态技术常常由于缺乏对具体治理需求的考量而影响了其效果的发挥。本文旨在刻画全球典型生态脆弱区生态退化趋势的基础上,基于利益相关者问卷调查和权威国际组织评估报告,梳理和分析针对主要退化问题和区域的生态技术需求。分析表明,脆弱生态区生态退化主要表现为水土流失、荒漠化、石漠化与生态系统退化,2000—2014年间,全球和中国大部分退化区退化趋势出现持衡或逆转,但仍然有约22%(全球)和11%(中国)的退化区退化程度加重。在不同的退化区,生态技术需求的类型和数量各具特点,主要表现为对复合技术或技术模式需求的增加。生态技术的甄选和应用应当针对具体的退化问题、退化阶段和机理、以及当地的社会经济和政策体制,因此,技术需求评估是选择适宜的治理技术的重要方面,有助于找出技术的输出和引进的区域,促进中国生态文明建设。

关键词: 生态退化, 技术需求, 脆弱生态区

Abstract:

Over the past decades, ecological degradation was grim on global level, especially in typical ecological vulnerable regions. To combat such degradation issues, tremendous efforts have been made among the scientific community, decision makers, and practitioners in the world. A lot of restoration technologies have been developed and applied, which played a key role in restoring and mitigating degraded ecosystems. However, some of the restoration technologies ignored the real needs on the ground and thus affected their applications. This paper aims to describe the trend of ecological degradation at the global level in general and China in specific, assess the technological needs for restoration using data and information from interviews of stakeholders from 18 countries, and 21 assessment reports from international organizations. The results illustrate that the major degradation issues in the vulnerable regions include soil and water erosion, desertification, rock desertification, and ecosystem degradation. Over the past 15 years (2000-2014), degradations in overwhelming majority of the regions remained unchanged or improved, about 22% (global level) and 11% (in China) of the regions exhibited a worsening trend. Technology needs for restoration varied among the regions, indicating an increasing trend in demanding combination of different technologies, rather than single technology, which gave the complexity of degradation issues and their impact on socio-economic development of the region. It is recommended that selection and application of restoration technology shall consider specific degradation issue, phase and drivers of degradation, as well as local conditions including economic, cultural, policy, and institutional settings. Technology required assessment is vital for identifying suitable restoration measures, investigating potential areas for exporting and importing technologies, and promoting ecological construction of China.

Key words: ecological degradation, technology needs, ecological vulnerable regions