资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (12): 2487-2495.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.15

• 资源经济 • 上一篇    

中国化肥投入对油菜成本效率的影响

刘成1(), 杨雪1, 周晓时1, 冯中朝1(), 张智2, 丛日环2   

  1. 1. 华中农业大学经济管理学院,武汉 430070
    2. 华中农业大学资源与环境学院,武汉 430070
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-02 修回日期:2018-10-17 出版日期:2018-12-20 发布日期:2018-12-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘成,男,湖北黄冈人,博士生,主要研究方向为农业技术经济。E-mail: hzau_liucheng@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家“现代农业产业技术体系建设”专项(CARS-0012);国家自然科学基金项目(71873050);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2662016PY117)

Impact of fertilizer input on cost efficiency of rapeseed in China

Cheng LIU1(), Xue YANG1, Xiaoshi ZHOU1, Zhongchao FENG1(), Zhi ZHANG2, Rihuan CONG2   

  1. 1. College of Economics & Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China;
    2. College of Resources & Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China;
  • Received:2018-05-02 Revised:2018-10-17 Online:2018-12-20 Published:2018-12-10

摘要:

近年来,中国化肥过量投入的现象十分普遍,由此所造成的农业面源污染问题较为突出,此外,化肥滥用不仅增加了农业生产成本投入,而且不利于农民增收,因此,提升农业化肥的使用效率既是农业绿色发展的必要措施,也是促进农民增收的重要途径。本文以油菜为例,探究在油菜生产中如何改善化肥投入结构以及减少化肥投入量。为探究油菜生产中化肥投入对成本效率的影响,首先利用中国10个油菜主产省市1543份大田实验数据,并采用超越对数生产函数模型,测算出油菜产出值最大时的氮肥最佳投入值、磷肥最佳投入值以及钾肥最佳投入值;其次,借用成本效率函数模型估算出中国油菜主产省份的油菜成本效率;最后,基于化肥投入合理性的视角,探讨油菜生产中的成本效率的主要影响因素。实证研究结果表明,油菜生产中化肥投入结构不合理显著降低了油菜成本效率,其中油菜生产中的氮肥过量投入以及钾肥投入不足,对油菜成本效率均有显著负向影响。因此,在今后化肥投入过程中,要加强对农户合理施肥的宣传力度,增加测土配方技术补贴力度,引导化肥企业提供更为科学适用施肥配方。

关键词: 油菜生产, 配方施肥, 成本效率, 大田试验数据, 氮肥, 磷肥, 钾肥, 化肥过量投入, 中国

Abstract:

In recent years, the phenomenon of excessive fertilizer input in China is very common. The problem of agricultural non-point source pollution is of prominent. In addition, fertilizer abuse not only increases the cost of agricultural production, but also is not conducive to farmers' income. Therefore, improving the efficiency of agricultural fertilizer use is not only a necessary measure for the green development of agriculture, but also an important way to increase farmers' income. This current study takes rapeseed as an example to explore how to improve the fertilizer input structure and reduce the amount of fertilizer input in its production. In order to explore the impact of fertilizer input on cost efficiency in rapeseed production, by using 1543 field experiment data, the logarithmic production function model was established to calculate the optimal input value of nitrogen fertilizer and the best input value of phosphate fertilizer when the output value of rapeseed was the largest. Next, the cost efficiency function model was initiated to estimate the cost efficiency of rapeseed in the main producing provinces of China. Finally, based on the rationality of chemical fertilizer input, the main influencing factors of cost efficiency in rapeseed production were discussed. The results demonstrated that the unreasonable input structure of chemical fertilizer in rapeseed production significantly reduced the cost efficiency of rapeseed. The excessive input of nitrogen fertilizer and insufficient input of potassium fertilizer in rapeseed production all exhibited a significant negative impact on the cost efficiency of rapeseed. Therefore, in the future investment in fertilizers, it is necessary to strengthen the propaganda of rational fertilization of farmers, increase the subsidy of soil testing formula technology, and guide fertilizer enterprises to provide more scientific and applicable fertilization formula.

Key words: rapeseed production, formula fertilization, cost efficiency, field experiment data, nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer, excessive fertilizer input, China