资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (12): 2451-2460.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.12

• 旅游资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家公园门票定价:国际比较与分析

陈朋1,2(), 张朝枝1,2()   

  1. 1. 中山大学旅游学院,广州 510275
    2. 美国伊利诺伊大学香槟分校-中山大学国家公园国际联合实验室,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-19 修回日期:2018-09-20 出版日期:2018-12-20 发布日期:2018-12-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈朋,女,河南许昌人,博士,研究方向为旅游者行为、国家公园。E-mail: cqpflysky@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471122);广东省自然科学基金项目(2018A030310136)

National park ticket pricing: international comparison and analysis

Peng CHEN1,2(), Chaozhi ZHANG1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. University of Illinois and Sun Yat-sen University International Joint Lab for National Park Research, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2018-06-19 Revised:2018-09-20 Online:2018-12-20 Published:2018-12-10

摘要:

《建立国家公园体制总体方案》明确提出中国国家公园建设坚持“全民公益性”理念,但到底如何践行其理念,平衡公益性与营利性,对公园门票进行定价是一个关键问题。本文选择世界上一些国家公园代表性国家如美国、加拿大、澳大利亚、法国、日本、韩国和尼泊尔等为例,对其国家公园属性的定位、门票收费的法律依据、门票定价策略、定价高低进行比较。研究发现境外各国都以法律的形式明确了国家公园的“生态保护”和“游憩利用”的两大功能定位,也明确了其公共产品属性。相应地,国家公园管理成本主要由中央和地方政府承担,公园收费仅用于弥补因游客增加带来的额外成本,即遵循成本弥补式定价原则,按“使用者付费”和“服务收费”的理念进行定价,相对于其国民收入水平,门票价格均处于较低的水平。这一结论对中国国家公园的门票定价具有参考意义。

关键词: 国家公园, 门票定价, 收费依据, 定价策略, 差异定价, 国际比较

Abstract:

It has been clearly indicated that Chinese national parks insist on public welfareby “The overall plan for the establishment of national parks. ”However, the key question is how to implement the concept of the National Park, balance the public welfare and profit-making. Taking the case of the representative countiesthat are America, Canada, Australia, France, Japan, South Korea, and Nepal, this study compared international national parks’ orientation, legal basis of entrance fee, pricing strategy, and pricing level based on the official national park website information and published research works. Results show that all the abroad countries have clearly defined the two functions of national park on the legal basis, i. e. , “ecological protection”and“recreational use, ”which also declared the property of public products. Therefore, the cost of national park management is mainly undertaken by thecentral and local governments, and the charge fee is only used to make up for the additional cost caused by the increasing touristsfollowing the principle of cost compensation pricing, which is priced according to the concept of “user pay” and “service charge. ” Relative to the national income level, the price of tickets is at a lower level. China has issued a series of National Park documents, there is no relevant law on national parks yet. And also for the Chinese entrance fee system with the nature of protected areas are often managed by government agencies, which are responsible for the parks and local economic development. Most of the revenue goes directly into local finance to make up for the shortage of local infrastructure funds. The boundary of parks’operating costs is not clear. This conclusion is benefitto the foundation of entrance fee pricing system of China's national parks.

Key words: national park, tickets pricing, charge legal basis, pricing strategy, differential pricing, international comparison