资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (12): 2392-2400.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.07

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

病死畜禽废弃物资源化利用研究——基于中外立法脉络的视角

司瑞石1(), 陆迁1(), 张强强1, 于璐2   

  1. 1. 西北农林科技大学经济管理学院,杨凌 712100
    2. 吉林大学法学院,长春 130012
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-06 修回日期:2018-07-23 出版日期:2018-12-20 发布日期:2018-12-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:司瑞石,男,河北承德人,博士生,研究方向为资源与环境经济学。E-mail: 1303178960@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71473197;71673223)

Study on the recycling utilization of dead livestock and poultry wastes based on the context perspective of Chinese and foreign legislation

Ruishi SI1(), Qian LU1(), Qiangqiang ZHANG1, Lu YU2   

  1. 1. College of Economics and Management,Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China;
    2. College of Law, Ji Lin University, Changchun 130012, China
  • Received:2018-06-06 Revised:2018-07-23 Online:2018-12-20 Published:2018-12-10

摘要:

病死畜禽属于农业废弃物,简易处理是病死畜禽无害化处理的前提,资源化利用则是推进病死畜禽无害化处理的根本。国外立法实践表明,柔性专门法律预设是实现病死畜禽资源化利用的基础,而在中国现有法律体系中尚属缺位,学界对该领域整体、系统、深入的研究也相对较少。回顾中国病死畜禽资源化利用相关立法进程及政策演进,相继经历了以环境污染防治为主的“末端治理”阶段(1995年之前)、以废弃物治理责任延伸至生产者为主的“无害治理”阶段(1996—2015年)、以病死畜禽资源化利用为主的“循环治理”阶段(2016年以来)。考察当前病死畜禽资源化利用相关法律,存在立法目标有偏离、规则体系不完备(主体不明确、客体不清晰、关系不确定、责任难落实)及保障制度有缺失等诸多问题。适应养殖业从线性经济向循环经济转变的发展要求,采取过渡性立法策略,在上位法修改中增加相应条款,适时制定部委专门规章,以明确立法目标、构建规则体系、完善保障制度是扭转当前现状的科学路径。

关键词: 病死畜禽, 废弃物, 资源化利用, 中外, 立法, 脉络, 建议

Abstract:

Dead livestock and poultry are belonged to agricultural wastes. Simple treatment is the premise of harmless disposal of dead livestock and poultry. Recycling utilization of wastes is the basis for promoting the harmless disposal of dead livestock and poultry. The foreign legislative practice shows that the flexible special legal presupposition is the foundation for realizing the recrycling utilization of dead livestock and poultry. However, it is still absent in China's existing legal system. The academic filed has relatively little attention on the whole, systematic and in-depth aspects of this field. Reviewing the legislative process and policy evolution of China's dead livestock and poultry recycling utilization, it has successively experienced three stages: “terminal management” phase (pre-1995) focusing on the prevention and control of environmental pollution, "harmless management" stage (1996-2015) emphasizing the extension of responsibility about wastes management to producers, and "circulation treatment" phase (from 2016) based on the recycling utilization of dead livestock and poultry. Peeking into the current law on the recycling utilization of dead livestock and resources, there are many problems such as deviations in legislative objectives, incomplete rule systems (unclear subject, unclear objects, imperfect relationship, and difficult implementation of responsibilities), and lack of security systems. Adapt to the development requirements of the aquaculture industry from the linear economy to the circular economy, adopting a transitional legislative strategy is feasible, which includes adding corresponding provisions in the revision of the upper-level law and formulating special regulations for ministries and commissions in a timely manner. Clarifying the legislative objectives, establishing the rules system, and improving the security system are the scientific way to reverse the current status quo.

Key words: dead livestock and poultry, wastes, recycling utilization, China and other countries, legislation, context, suggestions