资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (12): 2382-2391.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.12.06

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

美国农业焚烧管理对中国秸秆禁烧管理的启示

覃诚1(), 毕于运1, 高春雨1(), 王亚静1, 王红彦1, 孙宁2   

  1. 1. 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京100081
    2. 国家农业信息化工程技术研究中心,北京100097
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-25 修回日期:2018-09-12 出版日期:2018-12-20 发布日期:2018-12-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:覃诚,男,广西贺州人,硕士生,从事区域发展研究。E-mail:qc273624324@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771569;41301626);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费(1610132017019;1610132018043)

Enlightenment of the U. S. agricultural burning management on straw burning management in China

Cheng QIN1(), Yuyun BI1, Chunyu GAO1(), Yajing WANG1, Hongyan WANG1, Ning SUN2   

  1. 1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    2. National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agricultures, Beijing 100097, China
  • Received:2018-06-25 Revised:2018-09-12 Online:2018-12-20 Published:2018-12-10

摘要:

为解决秸秆露天焚烧给中国环境保护与农村建设带来的难题,本文系统梳理了美国农业焚烧管理中最主要的内容即烟雾管理计划,重点研究了烟雾管理计划对中国秸秆焚烧治理的启示。通过归纳分析表明,美国烟雾管理计划通常由焚烧授权、烟雾管理组件、公众教育、监督与执法、实施效果评价等5个方面组成,具体做法是针对不同等级的焚烧规模进行不同的分级管理,制定规范的焚烧授权标准以明确是否可以焚烧,依据烟雾扩散能力、风向、安全距离等确定可焚烧时间和可焚烧区域、最大可焚烧量,并进行严格的执法监督和处罚。基于上述分析,建议中国出台专门针对秸秆焚烧治理的法律规定,制定秸秆焚烧授权管理办法,因地制宜制定秸秆焚烧气象指数分级办法,加强秸秆焚烧过程中的管控工作。

关键词: 美国, 秸秆禁烧, 农业焚烧, 烟雾管理计划, 启示, 中国

Abstract:

Straw burning is a behavior that field crops are burned in the field directly after harvesting. As a biomass resource, straw was burned every year in the countryside, which has created major environmental problems including serious air pollution. The United States regards straw burning as an important part of agricultural burning and has introduced relevant measures to solve agricultural burning. In order to overcome the difficulty that straw burning makes it difficult to protect the environment and construct the rural area, the article systematically summarized the domestic and foreign laws and regulations in this area, especially the Smoke Management Program (SMP) of agricultural burning in the United States and tried to improve China's air quality. The SMP typically consists of five parts: burning authorization, smoke management components, public education, supervision, enforcement, and the evaluation of implementation effectiveness. The specific approaches of SMP for managing open burning are to carry out different classification management for different grades of burning scale, to establish a burning authorization standard to determine the feasibility of burning including time, area and maximum volume. Strict law enfor-cement and punishment were required to ensure that the policies can be effectively implemented. Systematic and standardized measures have made agricultural incineration in the United States acceptable to the public, without causing excessive air quality problems. According to the essential condition of China and combining the experience of the practice on SMP in the United States, it is urgent to set up straw burning control group, the relevant legal provisions for straw burning. According to the locally meteorological condition, topographic and geomorphic conditions, and the different demand of prevention and control of draw burning, management and controlling of the burning process should be strengthened to prevent the appearance of too much smoking, which would affect production and people's livelihood and may cause casualties from fire accidents.

Key words: United States, straw prohibition burning, agricultural burning, smoke management program, enlightenment, China