资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (11): 2186-2195.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.05

• 专栏:中蒙俄经济走廊资源研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

西伯利亚淡水资源格局与合作开发潜力分析

王平1(), 王田野1,2, 王冠1,2, 张学静1,2, 李泽红2,3(), БезруковЛ.А.4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所资源利用与环境修复重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 俄罗斯科学院西伯利亚分院地理研究所,伊尔库茨克 664033
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-27 修回日期:2018-10-09 出版日期:2018-11-20 发布日期:2018-11-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王平,男,安徽肥西人,副研究员,主要从事水文水资源研究。E-mail: wangping@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础资源调查专项课题(2017FY101302, 2017FY101301);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项子课题(XDA2003020101);中国科学院重点部署项目(ZDRW-ZS-2017-4)

Spatial distribution and potential exploration of water resources in Siberia

Ping WANG1(), Tianye WANG1,2, Guan WANG1,2, Xuejing ZHANG1,2, Zehong LI2,3(), L.A. Bezrukov4   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory for Resource Use and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Institute of Geography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033, Russia
  • Received:2018-04-27 Revised:2018-10-09 Online:2018-11-20 Published:2018-11-12

摘要:

淡水是人类生存的基础,也是全球战略性资源。总面积为969万km2的俄罗斯西伯利亚地区,拥有蓄水量占全球地表淡水资源总量约22%的贝加尔湖,以及总长度约500万km的河流和多座大型水库,其中叶尼塞河、勒拿河、鄂毕河等大型河流的水资源量极为丰富。据分析,该地区多年平均地表水资源量为2.35万亿m3,占全俄水资源总量的55%;水能资源蕴藏量为1.556万亿kW·h,占全俄65%;水运资源量为5.65万km,占全俄55.8%。尽管该地区水资源丰富,但由于人口稀少(不足2400万人,仅占全俄总人口的16%左右),水资源利用程度低,具有很大的开发潜力。西伯利亚山区河流水量丰沛,水能开发及水电发展具有广阔的前景。随着全球变暖,西伯利亚平原区河流的结冰期变短,航运价值不断提高。同时,在俄罗斯西伯利亚周边地区严重缺水的背景下,通过虚拟水贸易或跨流域调水,向中亚、蒙古和中国北方地区输送淡水资源具有重要的战略意义,将推动这一地区的经济与社会协同发展。随着“一带一路”倡议和“中蒙俄经济走廊”的规划实施,中蒙俄三方在水资源与水电能源等方面的合作具有广阔的前景。

关键词: 俄罗斯, 西伯利亚, 水资源, 合作开发, 跨流域调水

Abstract:

Freshwater is the foundation of human survival and a global strategic resource. The Siberian region of Russia has a total area of 9.69 million km2, which includes the Lake Baikal (~ 22% of the total surface freshwater resources), rivers with a total length of ~5 million km and large reservoirs. The large rivers such as Yenisei, Lena, and Ob are extremely rich in water resources. The average annual water resources in this area are 2350 km3, accounting for 55% of the total water resources in Russia. The hydropower resources are 1.556 trillion kilowatt hours, accounting for 65% of the total hydropower resources in Russia. The water transport resources are 56,500 km, accounting for 55.8% of the total water transport resources in Russia. This area is rich in water resources, while it is sparsely populated (less than 24 million people, accounting for only about 16% of the total Russian population). Therefore, this region demonstrates a low utilization of water resources, with great potential for development. Mountain Rivers in Siberian are rich in water resources. Therefore, the water power development has broad prospects. As the results of the global warming, the icing period of plain rivers in Siberian becomes shorter and the shipping capacity continues to increase. Additionally, under the background of severe water shortages in the surrounding areas of Siberian, the supply of freshwater resources to Central Asia, Mongolia, and northern China through virtual water trade or inter-basin water transfer indicate an important strategic significance and will promote the coordinated economic and social development of the region. With the implementation of the "Belt and Road Initiative" and the "China-Mongolia-Russia International Economic Corridor", China, Mongolia, and Russia have broad prospects for cooperation in hydropower and energy.

Key words: Russia, Siberia, water resources, cooperative development, inter-basin water transfer