资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (11): 2177-2186.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.11.04

• 专栏:中蒙俄经济走廊资源研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

1900年以来贝加尔湖水位变化及其原因分析

王冠1,2(), 王平1(), 王田野1,2, 李泽红2,3, 于静洁1,2, 刘昌明1, BolgovM.V.4,5   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所资源利用与环境修复重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 俄罗斯科学院水问题研究所,莫斯科 119333
    5. 罗蒙诺索夫莫斯科国立大学陆地水文系,莫斯科 119991
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-27 修回日期:2018-10-09 出版日期:2018-11-20 发布日期:2018-11-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王冠,女,河南新乡人,博士生,主要从事生态水文研究。E-mail: wangg.16b@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础资源调查专项子课题(2017FY101302, 2017FY101301);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项子课题(No. XDA2003020101);中国科学院重点部署项目(ZDRW-ZS-2017-4)

The variation of Lake Baikal water level and causal analysis since 1900

Guan WANG1,2(), Ping WANG1(), Tianye WANG1,2, Zehong LI2,3, Jingjie YU1,2, Changming LIU1, M. V. Bolgov4,5   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory for Resource Use and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333, Russia
    5. Department of Land Hydrology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow 119911, Russia
  • Received:2018-04-27 Revised:2018-10-09 Online:2018-11-20 Published:2018-11-12

摘要:

水位变化作为湖泊水文过程和水量平衡的动态反映,是湖泊生态环境的重要影响因素。全球最大的淡水湖——贝加尔湖,在自然变化与人为活动的双重影响下,过去100多年水位表现出较大的年内、年际和多年变化。贝加尔湖水位变化与入湖径流量变化密切相关,与贝加尔湖最大支流色楞格河的径流量变化较为一致。气候变暖带来的气温上升和降水减少使得入湖径流量减少,贝加尔湖水位下降。人类活动对贝加尔湖水位变化影响表现在两个方面:一方面,全球变暖条件下耕地面积扩张和灌溉用水增加导致贝加尔湖流域用水增加,使得入湖径流量减少,贝加尔湖水位下降;另一方面,1958年伊尔库茨克水电站投入运营之后,贝加尔湖水位变化受到了安加拉河水位顶托的影响。在下游水电站人为调控影响下,贝加尔湖年平均水位升高,年内水位波动幅度增加,年最低和最高水位出现日期推迟。地处全球气候与环境变化敏感区的贝加尔湖,其水位变化对湖泊及周边生态环境影响显著。因此,探究在全球变化背景下贝加尔湖的水位变化及影响因素对保护当地生态环境具有重要意义。

关键词: 贝加尔湖, 水位, 气候变化, 伊尔库茨克水电站

Abstract:

Water level change is an important factor that influences the lake's environment, which is considered to be a dynamic reflection of its hydrological processes and water balance. Over the past 100 years, the water level in the Lake Baikal, the largest freshwater lake in the world, has exhibited a large annual, inter-annual, and multi-year variations under the dual stress of natural changes and human activities. The water level change of the Lake Baikal is highly associated with runoff variation into the lake, which is consistent with the runoff variation of the Selenga River, the largest tributary of the Lake Baikal. The increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation caused by climate warming reduced the inflow to the Lake Baikal, causing the decline in the lake’s water level. The influence of human activities on the changes of water level in the Lake Baikal is manifested in two aspects. First, agricultural expansion under the global warming and associated increasing water consumption by irrigation has led to an increasing water consumption, reducing the surface water flow into the lake and declining the water level of the Lake Baikal. Second, water level change is affected by jacking of the Angara River after operating the Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station. Under the human control of the downstream hydropower station, the water level distribution asymmetry increases annually, the amplitude of water level fluctuation increases seasonally, and the date of annual minimum and the highest water level is delayed. The level change of the Lake Baikal, which is located in the sensitive region of global climate and environmental change, has a significant impact on the ecological environment of the lake and its surrounding area. Therefore, the research on the water level change in the Lake Baikal and its influencing factors has an important significance for protecting the local environment in the context of global change.

Key words: Lake Baikal, water level, climate change, Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station