资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (10): 1954-1965.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.10.05

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外迁安置、土地流转及水库移民生计转型

赵旭1,2(), 肖佳奇2(), 段跃芳1   

  1. 1. 三峡大学水库移民研究中心,宜昌 443002
    2. 三峡大学经济与管理学院,宜昌 443002
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-21 修回日期:2018-06-11 出版日期:2018-10-25 发布日期:2018-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赵旭,男,湖北宜昌人,博士,副教授,主要从事移民科学与工程和土地资源管理研究。E-mail: zhaoxu@ctgu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71401090);国家社会科学基金重大项目(13&ZD172);湖北省高校人文社科重点研究基地水库移民研究中心项目(2017KF04)

Relocation, farmland transfer and livelihood transformation of reservoir resettlement

Xu ZHAO1,2(), Jiaqi XIAO2(), Yuefang DUAN1   

  1. 1. Research Center for Reservoir Resettlement, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China
    2. College of Economics & Management, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China;
  • Received:2018-03-21 Revised:2018-06-11 Online:2018-10-25 Published:2018-10-20

摘要:

就近后靠到外迁安置是中国大中型水利水电工程开发性移民政策的重大调整,目的是为了拓展安置区的环境容量并延续移民原有生计。但随着外迁成本升高和经济社会变迁,此政策能否达到预期效果却日渐存疑。为了客观评价其效应,本文首先对外迁农业安置可能产生的异化效应进行机理分析,然后在此基础上采用2008—2014年南水北调中线工程外迁移民的调查数据,利用双重差分倾向得分匹配(PSM-DID),研究了外迁政策对移民土地处置行为和生计转型的影响。研究结果表明:在易地远迁中的适应压力和社会发展中的制度变革耦合作用下,相对于后靠移民,外迁移民更容易放弃农业生产并转出土地的;移民生计非农转型推动了外迁安置区的土地流转,但仅依靠土地政策革新却无法有效提升移民出让土地后的地租收益;外迁导致移民人力资本恢复滞后,使其就业比例及收入严重受限,进而影响到该群体生计非农化的可持续性。因此,移民安置前期更应注重补偿用地的质量、迁入地区位等因素,同时推广无土少土的安置模式;后扶时则要激活土地市场、开展技能培训、拓展就业渠道、实施低保兜底,以防范安置政策失灵带来的风险。

关键词: 水库移民, 外迁安置, 土地流转, 生计转型, 南水北调工程, 双重差分倾向得分匹配法

Abstract:

To solve the problem of expanding the environmental capacity of resettlement and to continue the original livelihood mode of migrants, the resettlement mode of immigrants changed from the latter-migratory to the out-migratory. It is a major adjustment of the development relocation policy of large and medium-sized water conservancy and hydropower projects. With the rising cost of immigration and the changing economic society, it is increasingly doubtful whether this policy can achieve the prospective. In order to objectively evaluate its impacts, the mechanism of the possible alienation effect of agricultural resettlement was identified in this study. The survey data of emigration in the middle route project of South-to-North Water Diversion Project from 2008 to 2014 were adopted. This study characterized the impact of emigration policy on land disposal behavior and livelihood transformation of migrants by PSM-DID. The result showed that under the coupling of the pressure of adaptation and the institutional changes in social development, migrants waived agricultural production and transferred the land. Non-agricultural transformation promoted land transfer in the relocation area. However, only relying on land policy cannot effectively enhance the landlord income from these lands. The emigration leads to the delayed recovery of the human capital of migrants, which seriously limits the employment rate and income affects the sustainability of the transformation of non-agricultural livelihood of migrants. Therefore, in the early stage of resettlement, more attention should be paid to the quality of compensation land and the location of resettlement area. Meanwhile, the resettlement mode of landlessness should be strengthened. To prevent the risks from non-effective resettlement policy, the land market should be activated, skill training should be carried out, employment channels should be expanded, and the lowest guarantee should be implemented in the latter support period.

Key words: reservoir resettlement, out-migratory, farmland transfer, livelihood transformation, south-to-north water diversion project, PSM-DID