资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (10): 1931-1942.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.10.03

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主要国家大豆压榨企业布局特征及其成因——以美国、巴西、中国为例

杨晓1,2(), 刘爱民1(), 薛莉1,2, 贾盼娜1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-17 修回日期:2018-05-07 出版日期:2018-10-25 发布日期:2018-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨晓,女,山东聊城人,硕士生,研究方向为自然资源学。E-mail:yangxiao9304@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41430861);中国工程院咨询研究项目(2016-ZD-001)

Characteristics of soybean processing plants distribution and its causes—taking America, Brazil and China as examples

Xiao YANG1,2(), Aimin LIU1(), Li XUE1,2, Panna JIA1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2017-12-17 Revised:2018-05-07 Online:2018-10-25 Published:2018-10-20

摘要:

大豆是一种重要的农产品资源,压榨行业是大豆产业链上的重要环节,它的原料来自大豆种植业,生产的豆粕主要用作饲料业和畜牧业的蛋白原料。自1996年以来,中国大豆进口量不断增加,是全球最大的大豆压榨国,大豆压榨企业布局发生了重大变化。美国和巴西是世界上最大的大豆生产国,也是主要的大豆压榨国,对比分析美国、巴西及中国大豆压榨企业布局特征,对指导中国未来大豆压榨企业投资布局具有重要意义。本文根据项目组20多年持续收集的相关资料,以及美国农业部、巴西植物油加工协会的资料,对比美国、巴西和中国的大豆供求基本特点、大豆生产布局、畜牧业和饲料业分布、大豆压榨企业和产能布局特点发现,美国、巴西的大豆压榨企业主要集中在大豆主产区,并与其国内豆粕市场空间高度重合,呈现“大集聚、小分散”的布局形态;而中国大豆压榨企业布局和大豆制品销区在空间上不完全重合,逐渐形成了以沿海港口城市为压榨核心,以长江、哈大铁路等交通运输线路扩散的带状布局形态。区域畜牧业、饲料业发展决定着豆粕市场需求空间,但是大豆原料供给与豆粕需求在空间上往往存在差异,除了不同国家和区域的产业政策外,大豆原料及豆粕的运费成本、豆粕的市场潜力、区域内大豆压榨产能规模及企业间分工协作所产生的集聚效应是造成大豆压榨企业空间布局形态存在巨大差异的主要原因。

关键词: 中国, 美国, 巴西, 大豆压榨企业, 大豆压榨产能, 大豆主产区, 豆粕市场, 空间布局

Abstract:

Soybean is a crucial resource of agricultural products. Soybean processing segment connects soybean planting and food industry, which is an important link in the soybean industry chain. In the recent 20 years, the import of soybean to China has been increasing continuously and China has become the largest soybean processing country in the world. Meanwhile, the layout of the processing plants has changed. The United States and Brazil are the two largest soybean-producing countries in the world as well as the major soybean crushers. To make the comparison for the layout features of soybean processing plants in the United States and Brazil, China is important for guiding the investment of China’s processing plants in the future. Based on the data collected by the project team, and the data obtained from the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Brazilian Vegetable Oil Processing Association, we found that soybean processing plants were located in both high soybean producing and high meal consumption areas in the U. S. and Brazil. However, the layout of China's soybean processing plants and the soybean products consumption areas are inconsistent. In the past 20 years, it has formed a belt-like pattern which takes the coastal port cities as core and takes the Yangtze River and railway as a diffusion path. Raw material supply, transportation cost, the size and potential of soybean meal market, agglomeration, and policy are important factors which affect the spatial pattern of soybean processing plants. Particularly, the characteristics of regional food industry and animal husbandry development will be a key factor to influence the layout of China's soybean processing plants in the future.

Key words: China, USA, Brazil, soybean processing plants, soybean processing capacity, main soybean producing region, soybean meal market, spatial pattern