资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (7): 1429-1437.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.07.11

• • 上一篇    下一篇

基于不同层级排污单元的水污染负荷分配方法

李泽琪1(), 张玥1, 王晓燕1(), 李英杰2, 陈洁2, 郭巍2   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院,北京 100048
    2. 陕西省环境科学研究院,西安 710061
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-18 修回日期:2018-04-10 出版日期:2018-07-20 发布日期:2018-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李泽琪,男,河南上蔡人,博士生,研究方向为流域非点源污染模拟与控制。E-mail: lzq2314@yeah.net

  • 基金资助:
    北京市自然科学基金委员会-北京市教育委员会联合资助项目(KZ201810028047);科技创新服务能力建设基本科研业务费(科研类)(025185305000/149);国家重大水专项(2009ZX07212-002-01)

A method for water pollution load allocation for different levels of pollution discharges

Zeqi LI1(), Yue ZHANG1, Xiaoyan WANG1(), Yingjie LI2, Jie CHEN2, Wei GUO2   

  1. 1. College of Resource Environmental & Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China;
    2. Shaanxi Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Xi’an 710061, China;
  • Received:2017-08-18 Revised:2018-04-10 Online:2018-07-20 Published:2018-07-20

摘要:

如何体现不同层级排污单元主导分配原则的差异性,一直是污染负荷分配方法的研究热点。本文在行政单元–排污企业间建立了一种水污染负荷分配模型:采用熵值加权基尼系数法体现行政单元层面的公平性分配原则;采用排污绩效法体现排污企业层面的效率性分配原则。这种负荷分配方法,既体现了排污企业对环境资源公平使用和高效利用的特点,又兼顾了行政单元在环境保护与社会经济发展上的协调性。结合陕西省区域统计年鉴及西安市污染普查数据,针对渭河流域西安市人口众多、工业污染源集中、水资源严重短缺、水污染严重超标的现状,应用该模型进行负荷分配,取得现实可行的结果。该方法可为不同层级排污单元的水污染负荷分配问题提供参考。

关键词: 污染负荷分配, 信息熵, 基尼系数, 排污绩效, 渭河流域, 西安市

Abstract:

We aimed to establish a method for water pollutant load allocation between administrative units and pollution discharge enterprises. Regarding the administrative unit level, equality was taken as the main allocation principle and the entropy-weighted Gini coefficient method was used to allocate pollutant load at the pollution discharge level. Population and gross domestic product were chosen to represent the potential of water pollution in administrative units; and land areas and maximum permitted discharge were chosen to represent the environmental capacity of administrative units. At the discharge enterprise level, efficiency was taken as the main allocation principle and the pollution discharge performance method was used to allocate pollutant load at discharge enterprise levels. The economic output value of the unit load was chosen to represent the environmental economic benefits of the discharge enterprise; and fresh water usage unit load was chosen to represent the resource utilization efficiency of the discharge enterprise. This method for pollutant load allocation provides equal rights for enterprises to discharge and highly efficient environmental and resource use, while paying attention to environment protection and socio-economic development. Combined with pollution census data for Shaanxi, this method is applied to Xi’an with a high population, dense industry discharge, short water resource and poor water quality, located in middle of Weihe river basin. Based on the administrative unit level in Xi’an, there are three counties with more than 10% pollution reduction rates, redefined as key reduction units. Other counties were redefined as retention reduction units. Regarding the key reduction unit, the optimized allocation result of the discharge enterprise level is the final plan. For the retention reduction unit, pollution reduction rates of some discharge enterprises need to be adjusted for a more reasonable allocation plan. This method provides a reference for pollution load allocation at multiple levels.

Key words: pollution load allocation, information entropy, Gini coefficient, emission performance, Weihe River Basin, Xi’an City