资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (6): 1287-1296.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.06.18

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基于物质流和生命周期分析的石油行业碳排放

吴明1(), 姜国强1, 贾冯睿1, 刘广鑫1(), 岳强2   

  1. 1. 辽宁石油化工大学石油天然气工程学院,抚顺 113001
    2. 东北大学冶金学院,沈阳 110819
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-17 修回日期:2018-03-09 出版日期:2018-06-25 发布日期:2018-06-22
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:吴明,男,辽宁抚顺人,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为油气管道输送技术。E-mail: lnpu2015@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71373003);辽宁省教育厅高等学校科学研究一般项目(L2014146)

Carbon emissions from the petroleum industry based on the analysis of material flow and life cycle

Ming WU1(), Guoqiang JIANG1, Fengrui JIA1, Guangxin LIU1(), Qiang YUE2   

  1. 1. College of Petroleum Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001, China
    2. School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
  • Received:2017-12-17 Revised:2018-03-09 Online:2018-06-25 Published:2018-06-22

摘要:

国内关于石油生命周期内的碳排放的研究主要集中在石油制品的消费环节,不能真实地反映石油流动生命周期内的碳排放。为了探寻石油生命周期内真实碳排放以及未来发展趋势,本文结合了物质流分析(Material flow analysis,MFA)和生命周期评估(Life Cycle Assessment,LCA)方法,建立了石油生命周期内碳元素流动模型。以国内某大型炼化企业为例,计算了各个环节的隐含碳排放和石油燃烧碳排放量,分析了影响隐含碳排放的关键影响因素,同时,设计了四种不同的情景,分别预测了2015—2050年间中国石油生命周期内的隐含碳排放发展和变化趋势。研究结果表明:①在石油生命周期内,每吨石油在生命周期总碳排放量约为670kg(约折合CO2 排放量为2457kg),其中隐含碳占总碳排放量的23%;②开采环节和炼化环节隐含碳排放分别占隐含碳总量的46%和54%,其中开采环节主要隐含碳排放来自天然气消耗和电力的消耗,分别占总量的47%和30%,炼化环节的隐含碳排放主要来自焦炭燃烧,占总量的46%;③在消费环节中,汽油、柴油和煤油在交通运输业中的消耗量最大,分别占各自总量的42%、53%和80%。提高石油行业能源利用效率和优化能源消费结构是实现国家2030年碳排放达到峰值目标的有效途径。

关键词: 炼化企业, 石油行业, 物质流分析, 生命周期分析, 碳流动, 隐含碳排放, 中国

Abstract:

Research in China on carbon emissions throughout the petroleum life cycle has mainly focused on the consumption of petroleum products, which cannot truly reflect carbon emissions. In order to explore development trends of carbon emissions in the petroleum life cycle, we establish the carbon flow model throughout the petroleum life cycle combining material flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking a large-scale domestic refining and petrochemical enterprise as an example, hidden carbon emissions and carbon emissions from petroleum combustion are calculated, and factors influencing embodied carbon emissions are analyzed. Four scenarios were developed to predict the hidden carbon emission trend for China’s petroleum sectors from 2015-2050. The results show that the total carbon emission per ton of oil is about 670 kg (equal to CO2 emission of 2457 kg) in the petroleum life cycle, of which hidden carbon accounts for 23% of total carbon emissions. Exploitation and refining processes account for 46% and 54% of the total hidden carbon, respectively. In the exploitation processes, embodied carbon emissions mainly come from natural gas consumption and electricity consumption, accounting for 47% and 30% of the total, respectively. The embodied carbon emissions of refining processes are mainly from coke combustion, accounting for 46% of the total. In the consumption processes, the consumption of gasoline, diesel and kerosene in the transportation industry is the largest, accounting for 42%, 53% and 80% of the total, respectively. Improving the energy efficiency of the petroleum sector and optimizing energy consumption structure is an effective way to achieve a national carbon emission peak by 2030.

Key words: refining and chemical enterprises, petroleum industry, material flow analysis, life cycle assessment, carbon flow, embodied carbon emission, China