资源科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (6): 1256-1265.doi: 10.18402/resci.2018.06.15

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内蒙古锡林郭勒盟景观格局变化对土壤保持能力的影响

黄婷1,2(), 于德永1,2(), 乔建民1,2, 郝蕊芳3   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京100875
    2. 北京师范大学地理科学学部自然资源学院,北京100875
    3. 北京林业大学水土保持学院,北京100083
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-27 修回日期:2017-12-27 出版日期:2018-06-25 发布日期:2018-06-22
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:黄婷,女,湖北荆州人,博士生,研究方向为景观生态学。E-mail: huangting@mail.bnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(4151170)

Landscape pattern change and soil conservation in Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia

Ting HUANG1,2(), Deyong YU1,2(), Jianmin QIAO1,2, Ruifang HAO3   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. School of Natural Resources, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3. School of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2017-03-27 Revised:2017-12-27 Online:2018-06-25 Published:2018-06-22

摘要:

提高土壤保持能力对于维持脆弱的草地生态系统稳定具有重要意义。本文在GIS技术的支持下,采用景观格局分析与逐步回归的统计方法,在流域尺度上对2005—2010年锡林郭勒盟景观格局变化对土壤保持能力的影响进行研究。结果表明:① 不同景观类型的土壤保持能力差异显著,单位面积土壤保持量为林地>农田>草地;② 2005—2010年,锡林郭勒盟林地土壤保持能力减弱,草地和农田土壤保持能力增强;③ 不同景观水平指数及不同斑块类型水平指数对土壤保持能力的影响差异显著;④ 景观水平上,流域土壤保持能力随着斑块数量和香农多样性指数的减小以及景观形状指数和香农均匀度指数的增加而相对增强,其中,斑块数量对土壤保持能力的影响更大;⑤ 斑块类型水平上,在降雨减少而植被覆盖度降低的情况下,随着聚合度的增加,林地土壤保持能力减弱幅度变小,其中,草地土壤保持能力随着最大斑块指数的增加而增强,农田土壤保持能力随着斑块面积百分比的增加以及平均邻接度指数的减小而增强。研究结果对于提高区域景观管理水平,促进水土保持具有借鉴意义。

关键词: RS/GIS, 景观格局变化, 土壤保持能力, 土壤侵蚀, 典型草原, 内蒙古锡林郭勒盟

Abstract:

Soil conservation is important for maintaining stability and sustainability of fragile arid and semi-arid grassland ecosystems. Here, using GIS technology the relationship between soil conservation and changes in landscape pattern at a watershed scale in the Xilingol league was analyzed using stepwise regression. We found that soil conservation in different landscape types varied. The pattern in the soil conservation per unit area was forest > farmland > grassland. From 2005 to 2010, soil conservation in forest ecosystems declined, while soil conservation of grassland ecosystems and farmland ecosystems increased. There were significant differences for soil conservation among different landscape-level metrics and among class-level metrics for different landscape types. At the landscape level, soil conservation of watersheds increased when patch numbers and the Shannon’s diversity index decreased and the landscape shape index and Shannon’s evenness index increased. Patch number had a higher effect on soil conservation. At the class level, rainfall and vegetation cover in forest decreased. Soil conservation of forest ecosystems decreased with increasing aggregation index. Soil conservation of grassland ecosystems increased with increasing large patch index. Soil conservation of farmland ecosystems increased with an increasing proportion of landscape and decreasing mean contiguity index. Landscape patterns and ecological processes impact each other. We can better understand the ecological significance of landscape pattern changes by looking at the impact of landscape pattern changes on soil conservation. The results of this study will promote regional landscape management and soil and water conservation.

Key words: RS/GIS, landscape change, soil conservation, soil erosion, typical grassland, Xilingol League,Inner Mongolia